In 1801 Napoleon sent an army led by General Victor Leclerc his brother in law

In 1801 napoleon sent an army led by general victor

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protect and assure the delivery of these supplies. In 1801, Napoleon sent an army, led by General Victor Leclerc, his brother-in-law, to reconquer the colony and suppress the slaves. Leclerc's orders were to capture Toussaint and return him to France to be imprisoned. After much slaughtering by both the French and the Blacks, Toussaint was betrayed by his officers. He was captured in 1802, sent to France, and imprisoned until he died on April 7, 1803. The timing of Toussaint's activities and documented evidence logically discredit any association between Girard and Toussaint. Page 323 of The Life and Times of Stephen Girard, John B. McMaster, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1918, reveals that in 1797, Girard instructed Bentalou, one of his captains, to obtain letters of introduction to Toussaint. Bentalou was leaving France, destined for Saint-Domingue with a valuable cargo and Girard wanted to avoid any problems when the ship arrived. Had Girard known Toussaint, a letter of introduction would not have been necessary. Another part of this myth claims that during the 1793 riots, many plantation owners and merchants, fearing the blacks, put their valuables on a Girard ship and then never returned to claim them. Some historians claim that Girard sold the valuables and profited $50,000. Professor Wagner, a Girard apprentice who, in his late life, lectured on Girard, stated, "The property was later claimed by their legitimate owners and delivered honorably." A study of Girard's records provides significant evidence that Girard encountered substantial losses from the uprisings. When the rioters destroyed Girard's warehouse in Le Cap, 20
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his losses were significant. Girard also lost considerable money because the merchants on the island couldn't pay their debts. In summary, Girard could not have known Toussaint. Toussaint was adequately supplied and did not need Girard. Girard encountered financial losses during the uprisings. Girard has often been maligned by stories like the above and by people who sought publicity at his expense. A careful review of his life, his papers, and books by his contemporaries, reveal that he was a wise investor, a clever merchant and businessman, and an unequaled land speculator. His life was working and he enjoyed it and he helped many who did likewise. He took chances yet but little of his success was luck. His humanitarian deeds are legend and well documented. Unlike many later millionaires, he did not exploit people. His Will exemplifies his generosity. Girard took his civic and charitable responsibilities seriously and his actions became legendary. He used his talents to help the city government. He was elected to the Common Council from 1802 to 1819 and to the higher Select Council, in 1819. He fought for the improvement of the city's port and the construction of what is now Delaware Avenue.
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  • Fall '19
  • Test, Second Bank of the United States, Stephen Girard, Marie Antoinette Girard

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