● Miscellaneous ■ Consecutive sentence ● Two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense and served in sequence w the other sentence ● 10, 5, 1 = 16 years ■ Concurrent sentence ● Two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense and served at the same time ● 10, 5, 1 = 10 years ○ Supervised release ■ Parole v. Probation: was incarcerated, might end outside of jail v. never incarcerated ■ Probation ● Non-incarceratory sentence where the defendant must submit to the supervision of a probation officer and must also meet certain conditions set by the Court ● Can spend remaining sentence of probation in jail if you are incarcerated ■ Parole ● A form of supervised release where the inmate has served a portion of his prison sentence ● During his/her release, he/she are supervised by a parole officer for a period of time ○ Due Process and Indiv. Rights ■ Due process- simply means procedural fairness ■ A right guaranteed by the 5th, 6th, and 14th Amendments ○ Bill of rights ■ Class focus: 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th Amendments ○ Courts and Rights ■ Gideon v. Wainwright : made it a requirement that the State provide counsel for indigent defendants ■ Previously, the Sixth Amendment was read as having guaranteed that defendants had the right to counsel, but not that the State must provide it. ○ Judge-made Law ■ Aka case law ■ Cases decided by the US Supreme Court have far reaching consequences ■ Decisions in effect become law due to Stare Decisis ■ Does this infringe upon the domain of the legislative branch of gov’t ○ Crime control v. due process ■ Crime control model : An analytical tool that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders
● Ends and not the means ■ Due process model : An analytical tool that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing ● Means and not the ends ● Prevailing model ➢ Social Control ○ The use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group through civil and criminal statutes ➢ Multiculturalism ○ Existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger society’s legal and political system ○ Religious freedom BUT their practices disobey many laws ○ Can make it difficult to create a system that works for everyone Chapter Two: The Crime Picture ➢ Crime TV shows ○ Popular bc crime can happen to anyone ○ Ppl are fascinated by death and violence ➢ Crime data and social policy ○ Many “get tough” policies (three-strikes law- 1990s) were the result of the criminal justice system’s inability to reduce the incidence of repeat offending (recidivism) ■ the tendency of a convicted criminal to reoffend ■ Rearrest within 3 years ➢ Perception v. Reality ○ Public perception of crime is not always realistic ■
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- Fall '12