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this rebellion. In 495 B.C.E. the Ionian fleet was destroyed for good in the naval battle at Lade and the Ionian rebellion was over. In 490 B.C.E. the Persians launched an expedition directly across the Aegean in an attempt to punish Eretria and Athens and to gain control over the Aegean. The Persians first destroyed Naxos and Eretria. When the Persian army came to Athens however the Athenians were well prepared. They had a commander named Miltiades, an Athenian who had fled from Persian service, which led the fight against the Persians. Miltiades, after serving the Persians, could have been familiar with Persian battle tactics, which would have been inexplicably important in the fight that was soon to come. This battle inspired the Athenians and instilled both confidence within themselves and the government to take on the rest of the Persians who were now sailing southward toward Athens. In the battle of Marathon Miltiades led an army of about ten thousand Athenians against two or three times that
number of Persians and was victorious. In the battle the Athenian army killed thousands of Persians while only losing about 192 of their own men. This victory was due in large part to the fact that the Persian army was built up of men from all over the empire and pre-existing areas. For the most part, these men may have not spoken the same language, had different fighting traditions, used different weapons and many may not have been able to fully understand the orders of their commanding officials. All of these factors lead to the defeat of their own army. The Persian army depended heavily on their sheer number of soldiers to win their battles, but the Athenians used strategy and experience such as hoplite warfare, the use of heavy armor and hand-to-
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Battle of Thermopylae, Ionian Revolt, Battle of Salamis, Persian army