One implication of the confirmation bias is that

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One implication of the confirmation bias is that: after a conclusion is formed, additional information is viewed as supportive of that conclusion.
Suppose we flipped a coin 10 times and it landed tails seven times. In this case the value for the proportion
In a study of the effects of humor on memory, Schmidt (1994) assigned participants to read either humorous sentences or nonhumorous sentences and then later tested participants' memory for the sentences. The control group in this experiment was: the group of participants assigned to read nonhumorous sentences.
Chapter 5 In a study of the effects of humor on memory, Schmidt (1994) assigned participants to read either humorous sentences or nonhumorous sentences and then later tested participants' memory for the sentences. The experimental group in this experiment was: the group of participants assigned to read humorous sentences.
Which of these partially explains the relatively high rate of Type I errors? the tendency of journals to publish "exciting" findings—that is, ones that report positive outcomes.
Goldstein et al. (1997) found that playing puzzle-like video games improved the reaction speed of elderly individuals. If no subsequent studies are able to replicate this finding, then the original researchers may have:
A social psychologist is interested in whether lowering a person's self-esteem increases their level of aggression. All of her participants complete a difficult math exam and some of them are given inaccurate, negative results (e.g., "you missed all of the questions," or "this is the lowest score I've ever seen") that are designed to lower their self-esteem. Other participants do not receive the negative feedback. Later, all the participants are given the opportunity to shock another person (presumably as part of a different study).
If Dr. Pitt used random assignment in her research, then she can make the reasonable assumption that: her experimental and control groups have similar characteristics prior to receiving the experimental treatment.

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