AgeAccording to Heuther and McCance (2017), “alterations of respiratory function in children are influenced by physiologic maturation, which is determined by age, genetics, and environmental conditions” (p.715). Croup primarily occurs in children ages six months to 5 years old, but spasmodic croup typically occurs in older children (Heuther & McCance, 2017). For children ages six months to 6 years old, viral croup is the most common form of airway obstruction and affects up to six cases per 100 children under the age of six per year (Knutson & Aring, 2004). While most cases of croup do not require hospitalization, “croup is the leading cause of hospitalization in children younger than four years” (Knutson & Aring, 2004, “Introduction”). Children are more susceptible to croup because their airway is smaller (Mayo Clinic, 2019). As children age, their airway becomes larger so swelling is less likely to interfere with breathing (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015).
GeneticsHeuther and McCance (2017) state that approximately 15% of children affected by croup have a family history of the disorder. Research conducted by Rennie et al. (2013) concluded that the “C/T genotype of the CD14 C-159T SNP was associated with an increased risk for croup” (p.767). Rennie et al.