In 1414, John called for a council at Constance to resolve the schism.John himself was deposed because of tyrannical behavior. Gregory XII accepted the council’s authority and resigned in 1415. Benedict XIII, Clement’s successor, was deposed in 1417, even though he objected.The council achieve unity under one pope by electing Martin V, but the papacy’s prestige suffered a blow.Pope Martin V13-31
Wycliffe and LollardyIn mid-14thcentury England, John Wycliffe inspired a movement the church labeled Lollardy, meaning idler.In his treatise, On the Church, Wycliffe argued that the true church was a community of believers rather than a clerical hierarchy. Wycliffe repudiated monasticism, the Mass, excommunication, and the priesthood, substituting reliance on the Bible and individual conscience instead of the church as the path to salvation. Church reform was the king’s purview. His ideas later drove the Reformation. John Wycliffe13-32
The Hussite MovementIn Bohemia, during the early 15thcentury, a reform movement led by Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague, accused the clergy of sinful conduct which should have kept them from administering the sacraments.They demanded more participation by the lay in the Mass and reading of the Scripture.Hus’s martyrdom sparked a national revolution. The Hussites, now called Taborites, established a community like the first Christian church and resisted all attempts to crush them.Hus burned as a heretic13-33
The FlagellantsThe flagellant movement grew out of the anguish of the Black Death.Believing that the Plague was God’s chastising of a sinful world, bands of men and women who wore tattered clothes visited churches and while confessing their sins, sang hymns and whipped themselves until blood flowed.From 1348 to 1350, the religious fervor aroused by the flagellants led to violence against Jews in southern France and the Holy Roman Empire. Jews were called Christ-killers and in 1349, thousands of German Jews were killed.A flagellant13-34
Unifying SpainLike England and France, Spain was also plagued by warfare in the 15thcentury. In 1469, the monarchy was made stronger when Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand married and ruled jointly over their dominions. Isabella and Ferdinand limited the privileges of the nobility and allied themselves with the cities, relying on urban militias to enforce justice.In 1494, two years after the Muslim stronghold of Granada fell to the Christians, Isabella and Ferdinand had firmly established their rule.Ferdinand and Isabella13-35
The Spanish InquisitionTurmoil in 15thcentury Spain made it impossible for Muslims, Christians, and Jews to live side-by-side.In 1478, the Inquisitionwas introduced into Spain by the monarchy, primarily as a means of controlling the conversos(Jewish converts to Christianity).Conversos were suspected of practicing Judaism in secret while claiming to be Christians. The accused were often arrested based on anonymous tips and couldn’t face their accusers in court.