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fruit trees, agri-silvopasture practices like growing fodder trees within crop fields as source of livestock feeds, live fences, and multi-story crop production. ■Water management: This category includes the promotion of terracing, particularly in hilly regions with high soil erosion hazards, and the improve-ment of water harvesting and irrigation structures, such as providing supple-mentary irrigation by focusing on increased water use efficiency, which can enhance carbon storage in soils through enhanced yields and residue returns. The lower-emitting techniques programme proposed by the STC would target 75% of farmers, reaching over 13 million households by 2030 through the government extension system. Through a combination of lower-emitting techniques tailored to local soil conditions, weather, and crop-livestock mixes (i.e., different practices in the highlands than in the lowlands), this initiative would lower emissions per hec-tare by an average of 3 tonnes of CO2e per year and have an abatement potentialof 40 Mt CO2e in 2030. The estimate of the abatement potential of this initiative is
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 142based on the UNIQUE 2010 study ‘Carbon Finance Opportunities in Ethiopia’s Agricultural Sector’. The abatement costcalculations for a programme introducing lower-emitting tech-niques are based on the following set of assumptions: ■Programme implementation in combination with a programme promoting yield-increasing techniques (see Soil Lever 2) through the Ministry of Agriculture extension service. ■Household expensestotalling USD 62/household to bring households into the programme, followed by USD 6 per household annually for running costs. Estimates are based on the Sustainable Land Management project, discounted by 50% to account for the joint implementation of the lower-emitting techniques and yield-increasing techniques.■Supporting investments including nurseries (one per 20,000 households), costing USD 50,000 each to set up, ■Programme expensesamounting to USD 10 million for programme setup, USD 17/household/year for the first three years that a household is in the programme, and USD 5/household/year for monitoring and programme management. ■Research expensesof USD 11 million annually for federal and regional research, based on the annual budget of EIAR. These assumptions result in a costof around USD 6 per Mt CO2e. Soil lever 2 – Enhance yield-increasing techniques for agriculture There is significant potential to increase agricultural productivity. By boosting yield per hectare and value per tonne of crops, it is possible to achieve the crop GDP target of 9.5% per year without rapid expansion of the total land under culti-vation. Through this initiative, it would be possible to achieve an annual yield growth rate of 3.5% (as opposed to 2% in the BAU) and a value growth rate of 4% (as opposed to 3.3% with BAU), thereby reducing the need for expansion of crop-land to 1.7% per year (compared to 3.9% under BAU). These numbers are based on averages for lowland and highland areas. The Soil STC estimated yield and