Psychologists consider three types of consistency

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Psychologists consider three types of consistency: over time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across different researchers (inter-rater reliability). The validity of an instrument is the extent to which it actually reflects the abstract concept being examined. There are four main types of validity which are face, content, criterion, and construct validity. When a measure has good test-retest reliability and internal consistency, researchers should be more confident that the scores represent what they are supposed to. Reliability can be increased by taking care to make measurements carefully and accurately. Repeating trials also allows you to see random errors and data points that can be disregarded (Flip, 2014). There has to be more to it, however, because a measure can be extremely reliable but have no validity whatsoever (Gray, 2017). As well as reliability, it’s also important that an assessment is valid. As mentioned in the Chris’ YouTube video, does it measure what it is supposed to? For example, if I consistently weighed on an incorrect scale, it is not valid, although its reliability is correct. Validity is increased by having controlled variables and using appropriate methods of measurement (Flipp, 2014). Trustworthiness in qualitative studies correlates to validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Qualitative studies do not utilize instruments with recognized metrics about validity and reliability. Qualitative researchers establish trustworthiness through credibility, transferability, confirmability, and dependability (Flipp, 2014).

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