5. Design and build a prototype of the new process. Typically process design will evolve after a number of iterations. The redesign of the business process itself could follow the following steps: 1. Organize around results and outcomes, not around tasks and so combine several jobs into one. 2. Make those who process information, use the information: workers make decisions. 3. Information-processing work should be subsumed into the real work that produces the information, so that steps are performed in a natural order. 4. Treat geographically dispersed resources as if they were centralized. 5. Put decision points where the work is performed, and incorporate checks and controls into the process (as such exogenous controls are reduced). 6. Capture information once and at the source (work is performed where it makes most sense).
7. Do not forget that processes have multiple versions. 8. Appoint case managers who provide a single point of contact. Notwithstanding the promises, 70% of BPR projects have been reported to fail. The reasons for this high failure rate are similar to those for any radical organizational change: lack of management commitment, unrealistic scopes and expectations, and badly handled resistance to change. In particular, an overemphasis on tactical aspects and neglect of the strategic considerations are perceived as a major obstacle to success [King 1998]. Also, the effectiveness of a company-wide, topdown approach as described above is questioned. Instead, there are signs that bottom-up approaches may be more successful. Business re-engineering proves to be successful starting with a small experiment in an inconspicuous part of the organization [Caron 1994]. This approach offers the organization the opportunity to learn from successes and failures, and to transfer this knowledge to larger projects in more complex parts of the organization. In this way an organizational memory of what succeeds and fails is built up [Caron 1994], which in the end can make business redesign work effectively. It general it is not the concept of BPR, which is considered as the reason for failure, rather then the way it is implemented [Teng 1994].
The concept of software as a service Web services are very different from Web pages that also provide access to applications across the Internet and across organizational boundaries. Web pages are targeted at human users, whereas Web services are developed for access by other applications. Web services are about machine-to- machine communication, whereas Web pages are about human-to-machine communication. As terminology is often used very loosely it is easy to confuse someone by describing a “service” as a Web service when it is in fact not. Consequently, it is useful to examine first the concept of software as-a-service on which Web services technology relies and then compare Web services with Web pages and Webserver functionality.
The concept of software-as-a-service is revolutionary and appeared first with the ASP (Applications Service Provider) software model. Application Service Providers are companies that package
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- Fall '20
- Theory of Economic Development