measures include precision, quantity of work done, and highest level of accomplishment (Touré-Tillery and Fishbach, 2014). Researchers broadly classify employee performance into two broad categories; task performance and contextual performance or citizenship behavior (Bhatti et al., 2014; Borman & Motowidlo, 1997). Jalalkamali et al. (2016) reveals that communication satisfaction significantly influences both dimensions of job performance. Task performance encompasses activities that uphold an enterprise’s technical aspects and operationalization of technical processes. It is considered as one the most important dimention of work ethics, and at times substituted for the notion of ‘overall job performance’. Contextual performance entails activities that are over and above organizational task requirements and depicts employee’s citizenship behavior (Bhatti, 2014; Borman & Motowidlo, 1997). While distinguishing contextual and task actions, Borman and Motowidlo (1997) presented a taxonomy of contextual performance comprising elements of social-oriented organizational behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Literature has widely endorsed the relationship between leadership’spersonae and employee job performance (Barrick et al., 2002; Rothmann& Coetzer, 2003; Solaja et al., 2016). Judge and Zapata (2015) evaluated the degree of association between five-factor personality model and job performance, and suggests that all five factor of big five model are valid predictors of employee performance. Yeh et al. (2016) gave an interesting aspect to this
5 Agreeablenessrelationship, by analyzing the moderating role of leadership on the association between personality traits and job performance. 2.3 Hypotheses formulation On the basis of aforementioned theoretical background, the following hypotheses are formulated to examine the significance and relationship for each element of the big five personality traits with employee job performance: H1: The relationship between openness to experience and employee job performance is a significant. H2: Conscientiousness on the part of leaders significantly influences job performance of employees. H3: Leader’s extrovert behavior significantly impact employee job performance. H4: There is a significant association between leader’s agreeable attitudeand employee job performance. H5: Leader’s neurotic personae significantly affects employee job performance. 3. RESEARCH APPROACH 3.1 Theoretical Framework Figure 1 elaborates the theoretical framework and depicts hypotheses formulation, wherein each of the elements of big five model are considered as independent variables, and employee job performance is labeled as dependent variable. Openness to experienceConscientiousnessExtroversion E Employee Job PerformanceNeuroticism Independent Variables Dependent VariableFigure 1. Theoretical framework of personality traits and employee job performance 3.2 Regression Model Since multiple regression is considered as a flexible data analytic tool for investigating data
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- Management, Big Five personality traits