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been used to improve the predictive utility of this assay for prostate cancer (Adhyam & Gupta, 2012). SummaryAlthough the PSA is an excellent screening tool for prostate cancer, a high-level is not 100% indicative that a man has prostate cancer. There are other conditions, such as prostatitis or an enlarged prostate can also increase these numbers. Most men with an elevated PSA level turn outnot to have prostate cancer; only about 25% of men who have a prostate biopsy due to an elevated PSA level actually are found to have prostate cancer when a biopsy is done (NCI, n.d.).ReferencesAdhyam, M., & Gupta, A., (2012). A Review on the Clinical Utility of PSA in Cancer Prostate. Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology, 3(2), 120–129. -012-0142-6American Cancer Society, (2016). What test can detect prostate cancer early?Retrieved from
Seidel's guide to physical examination (8th ed.).St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.National Cancer Institute (NCI), (n.d.). Prostate cancer: Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test.Retrieved from