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Construed as the outcome of negoti ations among

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(25) construed as the outcome of negoti- ations among interested parties who 13
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seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents (30) the new mainstream called social con- structivism. The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological deter- minism: technological determinists are (35) supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside (40) society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization. Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he (45) defines “technology” in terms of rela- tionships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery (50) is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by approp- riate systems of operation and main- tenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone (55) exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi- electronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportuni- ties, administration, and organization of (60) workers. Some changes Clark attrib- utes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the intro- duction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the (65) capabilities and nature of the technol- ogy itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: “When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?” -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q25: 14
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The primary purpose of the passage is to A. advocate a more positive attitude toward technological change B. discuss the implications for employees of the modernization of a telephone exchange C. consider a successful challenge to the constructivist view of technological change D. challenge the position of advocates of technological determinism E. suggest that the social causes of technological change should be studied in real situations Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q26: The information in the passage suggests that Clark believes that which of the following would be true if social constructivism had not gained widespread acceptance? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q27: The author of the passage uses the expression “are supposed to” in lines 34-35 primarily in order to A. suggest that a contention made by constructivists regarding determinists is inaccurate B. define the generally accepted position of determinists regarding the implementation of technology C. engage in speculation about the motivations of determinists D.
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