HTTP is a stateless protocol because every HTTP request is independent of and

Http is a stateless protocol because every http

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HTTP is a stateless protocol because every HTTP request is independent of and unrelated to all previous requests. A web app that keeps track of “where you are” (Have you logged in yet? What step of the checkout process are you on?) must have its own mechanisms for doing so, since nothing about an HTTP request remembers this information. HTTP cookies associate a particular user’s browser with information held at the server corresponding to that user’s session , but it is the browser’s responsibility, not HTTP’s or the SaaS app’s, to make sure the right cookies are included with each HTTP request. Stateless protocols therefore simplify server design at the expense of application design, but happily, successful frameworks such as Rails shield you from much of this complexity. Screencast 2.2.1: Cookies SaaS frameworks simplify working with cookies, which are used to establish that two independent
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requests actually originated from the same user’s browser, and can therefore be thought of as part of a session. On the first visit to a site, the server includes a long string (up to 4 KBytes) with the Set- Cookie: HTTP response header. It is the browser’s responsibility to include this string with the Cookie: HTTP request header on subsequent requests to that site. The cookie string, which is usually not encrypted but is protected by a “fingerprint” or message authentication code , contains enough information for the server to associate the request with the same user session. We can now express what’s happening when you load the RottenPotatoes home page in slightly more precise terms, as Figure 2.4 shows. Figure 2.4: At 50,000 feet, we can expand Step 1 from Figure 2.1 . To drill down further, we’ll next look at how the content itself is represented. Summary Web browsers and servers communicate using the HyperText Transfer Protocol . HTTP relies on TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) to reliably exchange ordered sequences of bytes. Each computer connected to a TCP/IP network has an IP address such as 128.32.244.172, although the Domain Name System (DNS) allows the use of human-friendly names instead. The special name localhost refers to the local computer and resolves to the special IP address 127.0.0.1. Each application running on a particular computer must “listen” on a distinct TCP port , numbered from 1 to 65535 (2 16 -1). Port 80 is used by HTTP (Web) servers. To run a SaaS app locally, you activate an HTTP server listening on a port on localhost . WEBrick, Rails’ lightweight server, uses port 3000. A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) names a resource available on the Internet. The interpretation of the resource name varies from application to application. HTTP is a stateless protocol in that every request is independent of every other request, even from the same user. HTTP cookies allow the association of HTTP requests from the same user. It’s the browser’s responsibility to accept a cookie from an HTTP server and ensure that the cookie is included with future requests sent to that server.
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ELABORATION: Client Pull vs. Server Push.
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  • Spring '19
  • Dr.Marcos

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