Health sector would remain underdeveloped These theories are a group of general

Health sector would remain underdeveloped these

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theories. Health sector would remain underdeveloped. These theories are a group of general propositions and are used as principles of explanation by nurses. In the early nursing history, there was little formal nursing knowledge and with time nursing education was developed. The knowledge was from various theories that guide research and practice. Most of these theories are borrowed from social sciences. Borrowed or shared theories have been used to explain and explore specific situations in nursing. They were in existence as early as in the 60s and were developed by various professionals and researchers in diverse fields. For instance use of borrowed theory in information science research. Analytical concepts and assumptions of social exchange theory can be used as a frame work to explore motivational factors of knowledge sharing, distribution and information intensive organizations. Another theory is Richard Lazarus stress coping adaptation theory that deals with how individuals cope with stressful situations (Folkman et al, 1986). The theory is very important to nurses since it provides nurses with a framework to understand impacts of stress on an individual and how the person responds to stressful situations. For example a woman in different stages of labor. The choice of pain control applies borrowed theory. Louis Pasteur also developed a borrowed theory known as the germ theory (Robbins, 2001). He discovered vaccinations for rabies, anthrax, silk worm diseases and chicken cholera. His accomplishments were made possible by his determination in developing medicines in the field of microbiology, bacteriology, virology and immunology. This theory stated that specific organism or germ causes infections and can be referred to by nurses to investigate causative agents of infections aiding in the discovery of preventive and curative measures.
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APPLYING THEORY TO A PRACTICE PROBLEM 6 Another theory is the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan 2010). It focuses on human needs and motivation that is psychological and social needs. In this theory, three basic needs should be met to achieve self-esteem and positive wellbeing. Namely, autonomy that is responsible for individual’s sense of choice, initiatives and behavior, competence that controls personal sense of power over the environment and proficiency in task performance and lastly relatedness to connect to valuable people and the society. This theory can be adopted by children as they grow as they become self-directed. Integrating both Borrowed and Middle Range Theories to Solve Medical Errors Some errors in the health care are inevitable but health providers are tasked with solving these errors before the patient is harmed. Both borrowed and middle range theories when integrated can offer an appropriate solution to these errors. Previously, self-efficacy and self- transcendence theories were considered the most appropriate to adopt. Adding on to the list is Jean Watson’s theory. According to Mareno (2015) the theory of self-efficacy uses a system that requires self-monitoring and allows judging of an individual based on their capability to carry out a behavior or course of action. Cognitive processing is also allowed in form of reflective
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