Fungal Infections Risk factors: - DM - Skin maceration - Topical steroid TX - Depression of cell-mediated immunity [HIV) - Etiology: Candida albicans and other species - May infect: - Skin, mouth, vaginal tract, gut - Reproduces through budding of oval yeast forms - Risk factors: - Pregnancy - Oral contraception - Antibiotic therapy 179. Tinea - Etiology: Candida albicans - Defined with anatomy: - Corpus = Body - Cruis = Perineal - Capitus = Head - Pedis = Feet - S/S:
Scaly, marginated, plaques, "itch", w/ a well demarcated line Dark skin: scaling appears gray, not red Light skin: scaling is pink / white 180. Tinea Unguium - Toe nail - Onychomycosis - Dermatophyte infection of nail plate - Most of the time requires systemic treatment due to difficulties getting to it by the nail - Takes about 3 months - Monitor liver enzymes BEFORE treatment starts 181. Pseudohyphae and Hyphae - Scrape lesion with slide and cover glass - Use saline and KOH [K+ hydroxide) as solvent - Appearance: - Microscopic rod-shaped filaments - Uniform width - Line of separation - Branching - Looks like straw 182. Diaper Derm - Diaper creates moist intertriginous area - S/S: - Erythema - Papules and discrete pustules *** Rash usually absent in skin creases - May be a contact irritant dermatitis - TX: - Minimize wetness - Barrier ointments - If caused by an Irritant: Steroids - If caused by Candida: anti-fungals 183. Balantitis - Candida infection on penis - S/S: - Tender - Pinpoint red papules - Pustules - Worse on uncircumcised penis [foreskin provides moist, warm, environment) - May exist without exposure to vaginal candidiasis, especially in the summer months 184. Cheilitis - Etiology: Inflammatory/fungal - Chronic maceration - Irritation from: - Saliva, - Accutane Treatment - Retinoid therapy - Moist intertriginous skinfold [Lip corners)
- TX: Topical antibiotic/anti-fungal 185. Tinea Versicolor - Pityrosporum orbiculare [part of normal skin flora [lipophilic) - May be contagious *** Oily skin more susceptible - Excess heat/humidity predispose - S/S: - Multiple small, circular, white, scaling macules 186. Tinea Versicolor diagnosis and treatment - DX: Hyphae, Wood's light fluorescence - Lesions fluoresce under the Wood's Lamp - TX: anti-fungals, selinium sulfide lotion 187. Infestations and Bites - Vector Born Disease - Caused by insect or arthropod - Vector "injects" immunogen into skin - Signs/Symptoms: - pruritus - Inflammation - Pain - Lesion 188. If you don't know what the lesion is from, which treatment do you start with? - ALWAYS start with the anti-fungal - If it works = cured - If it doesn't work = no harm done *** If you start with the anti-inflammatory first and it is actually a fungal infection, you will cause proliferation of the fungal infection 189. Pediculosis -[Lice) - Etiology: Pediculus humanus var... - Capitus - Pubis - Corporsi - DX: microscopy and egg casings - Tx: - Pesticide - Comb egg casings from hair - Wash clothes/linens - Bag un-washable clothes for 2-3 days. This deprives the vector of O2 and kills it 190.
- Fall '17
- keisha lovence