In these realistic tests one can clearly see the

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fire exposures with different fuel loads. In these realistic tests, one can clearly see the higher initial temperatures that soon taper off as the fuel source is consumed and diminishes. In addition, the standard ASTM fire test presumes that structural floor members are fully loaded at the time of the fire. In reality, fires occur randomly and design requirements should be probability based. Rarely will members be fully loaded to design capacity at the time of the fire. All model codes recognize the need to encourage engineered solutions to the fire protection of floor-to-roof sys- tems that modify or bypass the prescriptive measure found in the codes. They all allow for engineered solutions as long as they can be soundly substantiated. In fact some of the solutions mentioned above such as flame- shielded spandrel girders, water filled columns and the effect on the fire resistance ratings for steel of steel mass and shape are a result of code acceptance of steel industry research. Also, fire engineering methods using computer modeling techniques recognized by the building codes are being used successfully under provisions in the codes that allow for alternate methods. Recently the Uniform Building Code added information on full-scale fire tests to establish and document alternate fire protection measures. Fire engineering usually combines actual building occupancy, contents and actual anticipated floor-to-ceiling construction with fire suppression measures in order to model the predicted performance of the structure under anticipated fire conditions. This is done in order to establish what is necessary to meet the hourly rating required by the code i.e.; 1-hour, 2-hour or 3-hour etc. Figure 39. Concrete-based insulating material Figure 40. Typical connections in a continuous shell
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PAGE 75 SYSTEMS An engineered solution to the fire protection is often desirable form an aesthetic standpoint such as being able to eliminate fire protection around architecturally exposed columns in the interior of a building. It may be desir- able for functional reasons as well. One recent example of fire engineering allowed the elimination of spray-on fire protection on structural steel in a large warehouse storing flammable liquids. Fire engineering is a specialty normally requiring the additional services of fire protection engineers who under- stand the performance of steel under elevated temperature conditions. However, for many projects, the incen- tives in fire protection cost savings are significant and far exceed the additional design costs.
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PAGE 77 SYSTEMS PART III DETERMINING MEMBER SIZES FOR DETAILING DETERMINING GIRDER AND BEAM SIZES FOR FLOORS & ROOFS The architectural planning of any building requires many individual elements. During the pre-schematic design stages, one important aspect to establish is the building height. During these stages of design, preliminary struc- tural information is required. This information will include such things as floor and roof system fire ratings, floor slab depths, roof decking depths, floor beam depths, roof purlin depths, and floor and roof girder depths. Each
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