There is stability across ages even though there is

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There is stability across ages even though there is change as a whole group Ex – most conscientious 15-year old is most conscientious 30 year old Person vs situation debate looks at whether personality or situation determines majority of your behavior o William Fleeson study – participants sent 10 beeps a day and asked how extroverted they felt Indicates that the situation causes your behavior since it varies throughout the day o Study also measured the same people using the same methods a week later Showed that the mean of personality range relative to someone else was the same weeks later Correlation btwn averages of the different weeks were very high o Study indicates that personality has a midpoint w/ lots of variation but has very stable average Situation & personality can both impact behavior – situation pushes you above or below a stable average Life Orientation Test – measures dispositional optimism or extent you hold favorable expectancies for your future o Optimism heritability estimate is approximately 25% - childhood environment could predict adult optimism Way to turn pessimist into optimist – multi-modal intervention that instills range of stress-management techniques and positive reframing w/ “best possible self in the future” manipulation Big 5 Personality Traits Lexical approach – attempt to organize different specific traits to develop framework for how they all fit together o Determine how many traits were needed to comprehensively describe differences in personality If something is important for understanding differences btwn people, it will be reflected in language o We would have developed a word to help describe this difference
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Researchers went through a dictionary and pulled out every word that could describe differences btwn people o Applied math tool called factor analysis to find patterns of things correlated w/ each other o We need 5 broad dimensions to describe differences in personalities btwn people Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) – widely used in industry but not in serious scientific circles o Myers and Briggs developed MBTI out of psychodynamic theory o Theoretically created 4 dimensions but not based on large scale empirical research Big 5 Model or OCEAN Model – span of human personality can be described by 5 general dimensions o (1) Openness to experience – intellect, imagination, curiosity, creativity, interest in new things High – creative, imaginative, enjoy abstract thoughts, like to try new things Low – conventional thought processes, practical and concrete, prefer familiar things o (2) Conscientiousness – order, duty, deliberation, self-discipline, planning, thinking before acting Conscientiousness deals w/ frontal lobe function and higher cognitive functions High – dependable, efficient, successful, organized, plan ahead, task- oriented Low – impulsive, spontaneous, take life as it comes o (3) Extraversion – orientation toward positive opportunities in the world
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