Calls for state to play a role in uniting society

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Calls for state to play a role in uniting society around a common set of valuesContrast to liberalism (allows for multiple set of belief systems to coexist)Globalization World has become so economically and politically interdependent that there is little room for states to manoeuvre State power is not as significant as believed in a world of interconnectednessReading notes Jan 15 (Chapter 3)Democracy “good” system of governmentHave a basic set of democratic institutions built around competitive elections Not all democracies are equal in terms of voter powerIlliberal democracies (authoritarian regimes, semidemocracies)A system where power is widely distributed and rests with the peoplePolitical equality Demos – citizens within a city-stateKratos – power or ruleVery hard for minorities to turn over discriminatory laws Always minority of people who have to accept decision they have to disagree with
Direct democracy System where people rule directlyOnly possible in a very small scale societyRepresentative democracyMeant for larger scale communitiesPolyarchyA multiplicity of pressure groups Where minorities ruleDemocratic Elitism Democracy and active participation of citizens in making political decisions is unrealistic and undesirableClassic model of democracy is unrealisticDeliberative DemocracyNot enough for voters to have opportunity to exercise a political choiceTrue democracy must allow for choices to be developed through discussion and reflection Consociational democracyInvolves sharing of power in divided societies One possible solution to the problem of entrenched minorities Cosmopolitan democracy Citizens of nation-states are increasingly affected/dominated by forces beyond home countriesPolitical leaders need to ensure global forces are controlled by democratic means Reading notes Jan 17, 22, 24 (Chapter 5)Ideologies Set of ideas to describe existing political orderContains empirical, semantic and normative elements Often action oriented Traditional ideologies shaped by enlightenment Liberalism Dominant political tradition in west for many centuriesHobbes, Locke, Bentham, Mill, Rawls, and Nozick Origins traced to rise of 17thand 18thEuropean capitalist-political economy Associated with free market in some countries Maximizes individual freedom and rewards those who work the hardest 2 forms “classical” and “new”
Core concept is libertyClassical tradition emphasizes negative liberty (individual freedom from external constraints)

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