Zapping typically occurs as a result of the criminal

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information about the system's programs or processes. Zapping typically occurs as a result of the criminal bypassing the enter- prise's security systems. Another category of computer crime revolves around the attempt to steal or capture data in the enterprise's systems. Eavesdrop- ping is the use of electronic surveillance devices to either listen to or capture the content of electronic transmissions. Similarly, wiretapping is the use of any device to electronically capture data during transmission or to listen to conversations that take place over the network. Both wireless transmissions and those that occur over copper wire are susceptible to wiretapping. In addition, small amounts of the enterprise's data can be captured or rerouted through salami or data slicing. This crime involves the development or modification of software to capture small amounts of financial transactions and redirect them to a hidden account. Because the amounts ("slices") are so small, they typi- cally go unnoticed. However, over time, a large volume of small losses can yield significant amount of stolen money. Sometimes, however, computer criminals are not out to steal data or money from the enterprise but merely to sabotage its computer systems. Logic bombs are programs that are designed to sabotage data, programs, or processes. Logic bombs are set to execute when certain conditions exist in the system. Similarly, time bombs are programs that monitor the computer's internal calendar and execute on a specific date. Trojan horses are pro - grams that look as if they perform one function but actually do something else. Although Trojan horses appear to be harmless applications, once they are loaded into the computer, they wreak damage.
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Page 3 EBSCO Research Starters ® • Copyright © EBSCO Information Services, Inc. • All Rights Reserved Communications, Networking & Security Because of the potential for external and internal attacks, infor- mation technology systems need to address several levels of security issues. In general, the enterprise needs to protect its information technology resources from both intrusions by forced, unauthorized entry into the system as well as interception and capture of data by unauthorized personnel. The security of the computer centers and other rooms where information technol- ogy processing activities take place and data and other resources are stored must be ensured. This includes the security of equip- ment and facilities. Unauthorized users need to be denied access through the use of security protocols and procedures. Similarly, the security of both the data and application software needs to be taken into account. The enterprise needs to put into place security procedures to limit access to data and processes by those who do not need to access them. In addition, the communications net- works, access to the Internet, and any intranets or extranets must be carefully controlled in order to limit the potential for viruses and other opportunities for hackers.
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