If the reporting verb (i.e. said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original. For example: He said the test was difficult. She said she watched TV every day. Jack said he came to school every day. If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (i.e. says) the tense is retained. For example: He says the test is difficult. She has said that she watches TV every day. Jack will say that he comes to school every day. If reporting a general truth the present tense will be retained. For example: The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important. RULES FOR CHANGING DIRECT INTO INDIRECT: 1. Pronoun Change: First person pronoun according to the Subject Second person pronoun according to Object. Third person pronoun No change. Subject Pronoun: First Person: I We Second Person: You Third Person: He Possessive Pronoun: First Person: My Our Second Person: Your Third Person: His Object Pronoun: First Person: Me Us Second Person: You Third Person: Him
Elementary English – ENG 001 VU © Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 55 She It They Her Its Their Her It Them For example: 1. He said, “I like you.” He told me that he liked me. 2. He said, “I will accept your offer.” He told me that he would accept my offer. 3.Adjective and adverb changes: This becomes That These becomes Those Here becomes There Now becomes Then Today becomes That day Yesterday becomes Preceding day or previous day Tomorrow becomes Next day or following day 3. Verb changes: See (pres.) becomes saw (past) Saw had seen Is seen was seen Has seen had seen Was seeing had been seen Shall /will should/would Be were Can/may could/might For example: Direct speech: “In many parts of the country farmers who were formerly ploughing nearly all their land now have most of it under grass.” Indirect speech: He said that in many parts of the country farmers who had formerly been ploughing nearly all their land then had most of it under grass
Elementary English – ENG 001 VU © Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 56 Indirect Questions When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/no questions connect the reported question using 'if'. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question word. For example: She asked, "Do you want to come with me?" BECOMES She asked me if I wanted to come with her. Dave asked, "Where did you go last weekend?" BECOMES Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend. He asked, "Why are you studying English?" BECOMES She asked me why I was studying English. “Will he come?” BECOMES He asked would he come.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 136 pages?