6 Sir Adam Beck 2 WAM initially resulted from the Northeast Blackout 1965 7 WAM

6 sir adam beck 2 wam initially resulted from the

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6 Sir Adam Beck #2 WAM, initially resulted from the Northeast Blackout (1965) 7 WAM is one of the results of the Blackout of 1965 The federal commission was appointed to follow up the blackout. It was found that utilities do not have real time information of the state of the power system. It was recommended to establish a real time measurement system and develop computer based operational and management tools . 8
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3 WAM is one of the results of the Blackout of 1965 This launched the activities which led to state estimation and real time contingency analysis. Pioneering work was done by Stagg, Dopazo, Schweppe, DyLiacco and others. EMS The starting point was wide area measurements and state estimation. 9 State Estimation Traditionally, power system dispatch is based on the Operating Guides from system planning. Issues: multiple scenarios, Operating Guides need to be modified for contingency states, and there is a time delay. Load flow calculation is a solution. Issue: a way is needed for processing available measurements to estimate the present state of the system in real time. 10 Challenges of State Estimation Insufficient data Errors in raw data Inaccurate modeling For example, unknown switching, unknown tap position, mistakes of system configuration or line data Data received is not synchronized New measurement devices are needed 11 Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
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