20 what are the functions of antibodies bind

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20) What are the functions of antibodies? - Bind specifically to molecules from the pathogen that elicited the immune system. – Recruit other cells and molecules to destroy the pathogen once the antibody is bound to it. – Neutralization of toxins. 1) Neutralization. 2) Opsonization. 3) Complement Activation. 21) Describe the main classes of antibodies described in mammal systems and what are the major structural differences among them? - Differences in length of the heavy chain C region. –Differences in location of the disulfide bond. –Presence or absence of the hinge region. –Differences in the distribution of N-linked carbohydrates groups. IgG most abundant in the blood IgG: - 2 disulfide bonds – Hinge IgA: - 1 disulfide - Hinge IgM: - No disulfide bond – No Hinge IgE: - No disulfide – No Hinge IgD: - 1 disulfide – Hinge 22) In the context of BCR, what are hypervariable regions?
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23) What is an antigen epitope? 24) What is the difference between linear and discontinuous epitope? vv Hypervariable region : lies in discrete loops at one end of the domain structure. V domain makes the antigen-binding site. Antigen Epitope : It is the part of the antigen to which antibody binds. This is also antigen determinant. An antigen can name more than one Epitope. Linear Epitope : Recognized by antibodies by its linear sequence of amino acids, or primary structure. Discontinuous Epitope : One in which amino acids are in close proximity in the folded protein, but distant when unfolded. 25) Explain the different mechanisms by which B cells could get activated? Thymus dependent linked recognition B cell Activation 26) What is linked recognition in Thymus-Dependent B cell activation? Epitopes recognized by B cells and helper T cells must be physically linked for the helper T cell to activate the B cell . This is called linked recognition . 27) Explain what is a primary focus of immunoglobulin production? Where does this take place? What kind of antibodies are produced, and why? A focus of B cells and cognate T cells undergoing proliferation. Following activation, B cells and cognate T cells move to the medullary cords and form a primary focus. Some B cells in the primary focus differentiate to plasma cells that secrete low affinity IgM antibody. 28) Explain the events that take place since the moment a B cell is activated in a lymph node until it becomes a Plasma Cell and moves to the Bone Marrow. -Lymphocytes derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the BONE MARROW -B-cell development begins by rearrangement of the HEAVY chain locus -The pre-B-cell receptor tests for successful production of a complete HEAVY chain and
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signals for the transition from the pro-B cell to Pre-B cell stage. -Pre B cell receptor signaling inhibits further heavy chain locus rearrangement and enforces allelic exclusion -Pre-B cells rearrange the light chain locus and express cell-surface immunoglobulins -Immature B cells are tests for auto reactivity BEFORE they leave the bone marrow.
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