credential requirements to keep unwanted practitioners out; with fewer applicants for professional occupations, skills remain scarce and salaries remain artificially high Social MovementsIdeology-Dominant Ideology:an ideology that supports the status quo (the way things are now) and the interests of the ruling class; for ex. neo-liberalism is apparently the dominant ideology in countries like Canada, Great Britain, and the US-Counter Ideology:an ideology that supports alternative social values and challenges that dominant ideologyChanging Causes of Social Movement Formation-in the 18thand early 19thcenturies, most social movement were poorly organized and usually targeted social issues-With the rise of urbanized nation states and improved transportation and communicationstechnology, social movements began to grow in importance
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-In the early 20thcentury, wealth redistribution and better working conditions were popularthemes among social movements, and protests took the form of mass demonstrations, blockades, boycotts, sit-ins, and strikes-During the late 20thcentury, social movements fought for equity and human rights, not just for working people, but also form women, visible minorities, and gays and lesbians -Social movements are most likely to form and protest when political parties, institutions, and corporations fail to satisfy public demands; under such conditions of dissatisfaction, people are more likely to organize, mobilize available resources, and put a plan into actionSocial Movements in the Globalized World-With television, satellite telecommunications, personal computers, mobile phones, and the Internet, social movements can spread beyond national boundaries-But with global telecommunication and economic integration, the stakes, the territory, and the resources needed to advance social movements are larger and require stronger leaders and more dedicated followers than even before-Greenpeace is an example of a movement that is international in scope and had chapters and offices in many countries throughout the worldLabour ForceThe Dual Labour Market-Good Jobs:full time, full year, permanent, represented by a union or a professional association, high wages or salaries, and benefits; these include professional, managerial, and technical occupations-Bad Jobs: part-time, temporary, non-union, little or no benefits, low wages, under close supervision, and little or no opportunity for promotion or advancement; many of these jobs are found in sectors such as retail sales and food servicesLabour Market Forecasting-Best Case Scenario:a more educated labour force and an increasing demand for professional, managerial, and technical workers; this is what the government, most post-industrial theorists, and futurists argue-Worst Case Scenario:an increasing supply of overeducated and underemployed workers doing ‘bad jobs’ due to cutbacks, automation, and outsourcing of jobs in the corporate and public sectors of the economyReplacement Workers-
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