IDEA: excess fructose creates uric acid increase, & that increase causes an inflamed & swollen joint During 22 years of follow-up, documented 778 confirmed incident cases of gout o Compared with consumption of <1 serving per month of sugar- sweetened soda, the multivariate relative risk of gout for 1 serving per day was 1.74 & for TWO or more servings per day, 2.39 o Corresponding relative risks for OJ were 1.41, for Cola 1.74 o The absolute risk differences corresponding to these relative risks were 36 & 68 cases per 100,000 person-years for sugar-sweetened soda o Diet soft drinks were NOT associated with the risk of gout o According to the researcher’s findings, the contribution of sugar- sweetened beverages consumed on a daily basis to the risk of gout is MODEST o Glucose sweetened drinks do NOT contribute to gout ° ° Cataracts ~40% of persons between the age of 55 & 64 have some opaque areas ~90% of persons between the age of 75 & 84 have some opaque areas Sometimes called “sugar cataracts” or “diabetes cataracts”
° Lesson 3 (Fats) : ° Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen ° Functions: Stored energy Insulation Buoyancy Padding Hormone Production ° ° Structure: Glycerol 3 C-chains o Chain lengths distinguish fats Tristearin: saturated solid fat (18 carbons in each chain) Saturated VS Unsaturated (Polyunsaturated/monounsaturated) ° ° Some Key Products: Lard o 100% Pig fat Pure white fat coming from pigs 60% unsaturated fat, 40% saturated fat o Beef tallow 60% saturated fat, 40% unsaturated fat Butter o Mostly saturated fats Margarine o Plant fats, 20-60% H2O o Invented in France (1869) o Hydrogenation: Solidifying unsaturated fats through addition of hydrogens to the cis C=C bond TRANS-fats: when the C=C bond is trans (hydrogens are on opposite sides) No rotations in a double bond Bonding is reorganized Elemental H 2 gas is involved Catalyst: Palladium (Pd) or Platinum (Pt) Double C=C bond interacts with catalyst & H-H gas H’s get transferred to the C=C bond, which is now a C- C bond
H’s are transferred ONE at a time Leaves time for the single C-C bond to rotate Rotation produces TRANS fat H 2 doesn’t bond completely to fat Transfat: impurity in the hydrogenation process TRANSFATS THAT OCCUR NATURALLY ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED CHOLESTROL LEVELS o Some margarines (high % of H2O) should NOT be frozen o Meats: Some meats have obvious fat in it Shortening o Mostly saturated fat, ~20% H2O ° ° Foods high in cholesterol does not dramatically increase cholesterol levels in the body (~80%) ° If saturated fat consumption was reduced from 30% to 10%, it would only increase lifespan by 3 days – 3 months ° Study: cutting saturation fat (replacing with unsaturated) reduced cardiovascular disease Risk of Cardiovascular diseases is reduced when SFA are replaced with Ployunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
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