Many were unable to meet their heavy tax burden In addition at the end of Sui

Many were unable to meet their heavy tax burden in

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Dynasty the whole country fell into chaos due to the tyranny of Emperor Yang; rebellions rousedby peasants were everywhere. Resenting Emperor Yang's ruling, the chief officer of Taiyuan - LiYuan, who was also known as Tangguo Gong raised an army in Taiyuan from May 617. InNovember of the same year, Li Yuan's army captured the capital city Chang'an and put a newmonarch, Yang You, on the throne as Emperor Gong. Meanwhile, Li Yuan proclaimed himselfDa Chengxiang and Tang Wang. In 618 after Emperor Yang was killed by his chancellor, YuwenHuaji, Li Yuan seized the chance to proclaim himself emperor and changed the state title intoTang, still with Chang'an as the capital city. The first glorious period was from 627 to 649 whenthe Tang Dynasty was just set up and its national strength was recovering from the previousweak condition. Under Emperor Taizong Li Shimin's wise governing, the national strength andsocial development reached an unparalleled prosperity - economy and commerce flourished, thesocial order was stable, corruption never existed in the court and the national boundaries wereeven open to foreign countries. The second glorious period was during Emperor Xuanzong'sreign. In 712, Emperor Ruizong abdicated and Li Longji was enthroned as Emperor Xuanzong.Under his ruling, the national economy, politics and culture all developed rapidly and the social
development entered a new heyday. In that period, Chang'an City was the largest and the mostprosperous metropolis in the world. Since the title of Xuanzong's reign was Kaiyuan, that periodwas called the Heyday of Kaiyuan, in which the Tang Dynasty reached its summit of prosperity.The Song dynasty is actually divided into two separate periods: The Northern Song from 960-1126 A.D. and the Southern Song from 1126-1279 A.D. The northwestern part of the country had been taken over by the nomadic tribes, forcing the emperor move the capital to Kaifeng, then later to Hangzhou during the southern Song period. They also lost control of Tibet.While they struggled with territory control, the Song strived in economic development and cultural achievement. Government was refined, with the gentry governing on a local level. As printing and education became more widespread, new classes formed. Cities became commerce,

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