Like its counterpart Occidentalism in different places manifests itself in

Like its counterpart occidentalism in different

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Like its counterpart, Occidentalism in different places manifests itself in different forms: In the Middle East and the Arab countries where Islamic culture is dominant, Occidentalism manifests itself as an antago nistic form that strongly opposes Western hegemonism represented by the United States, and sometimes even evolves into large-scale armed clashes. For example, the Libyan-American antagonism several years ago, the blood-shedding conflict between the Iraqi and the Allied Army This content downloaded from 146.7.113.210 on Sat, 21 Oct 2017 22:45:48 UTC All use subject to
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ORIENTALISM VERSUS OCCIDENTALISM? 63 and the Iranian-American conflict are the most evident cases. In these cases, "Occident" is also constructed as an "other," and the Occidentalism in the eyes of the Oriental is obviously characterized by the Third World's anticolonialist and antihegemonic tendency. In those countries or regions characterized by evident "postcoloniality," such as India, the English which refers to the language used in Britain has varied into the english which is marked with indigenous dialects and pronunciation, and english cultures and literatures have thus been marked with "post coloniality." Therefore, Occidentalism as opposed to Orientalism has at one time been regarded as a "decolonizing" and even anti-colonialist strategy of discourse getting along with the local decolonizing move ment. Even in such a developed Oriental country as Japan which apparently belongs among the developed group in its economic sense, Occidentalism has its own unique manifestation: on the one hand, Japan always views Europe and America as its economic rivals; therefore the West actually refers to the geographically Western countries. On the other hand, Japan has gradually realized its double cultural coloniality, namely, it was influenced by China before the nineteenth century and penetrated and influenced by the West after the latter part of the nineteenth century, and it was actually colonized after World War II. So it is not surprising that Occidentalism in Japanese culture manifests itself as a "decolonizing" tendency and a drive to reconstruct Japanese culture, which found particular embodiment in the organizing of the thirteenth International Comparative Literature Congress in 1991.8 As a postcolonialist strategy of discourse in the Oriental and Third World countries,9 Occidentalism has indeed been in the minds of many people although it has not yet become a theoretical topic. It every now and then manipulates our research on East-West cultural relations, sometimes playing a role of intensifying the East-West opposition rather than establishing communication and dialogue. Undoubtedly, in some sense it lends support to our struggle against Western cultural hege mony. It could sometimes even help to give full play to a certain national spirit and national pride to more or less contain Western hegemony. But meanwhile, we must confront the fact that, in the current age character ized by cultural pluralism and different forces coexisting with and complementing each other, cultural relativism has once again attracted people's attention. It has revealed an attitude different from the old
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