In a leadership study spanning 39 countries offermann

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In a leadership study spanning 39 countries Offermann and Hellmann (1997)found that power distance is negatively related to leaders' approachability,communication and delegation. In a meta-analytic review of research based onHofstede's cultural model, power distance at the societal level has been found tobe one of the strongest predictors of a number of outcomes by Taras, Kirkman,& Steel (2010).Specifically, researcher explore the impact of power distance orientationon leader-member exchange. A large communication gap exists betweensuperiors and their subordinates because it is hard for the subordinates to airtheir views. In a high power distance culture, decisions are made by a few at thetop autocratically. High power distance organizations are prone to unethical
10behavior. This is because top managers have not to justify or defend theirdecisions to lower-level employees or to the larger organization. Unethicalbehavior gets covered up or goes undetected. And in a high power distanceorganization, managers tend to micromanage and even minor decisions go to thetop. Thus, higher level managers are inundated with routine decision.2.3. Leader-member ExchangeThe leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, which evolved from whatwas originally called the vertical-dyad linkage by Dansereau, Graen, & Haga(1975), represented a departure from the average leadership style theories byproposing that leaders do not treat all followers identically; rather, they developdifferent quality of relationships with followers. In high LMX relationships,followers receive support and encouragement from their leader, are given moreresponsibility, and receive more challenging, or developmental, assignments. Inlow LMX relationships, work is performed according to a formal set of rulesand the employment contract; information is communicated downward, andrelationships are characterized by distance between the leader and follower.Hofmann (2003) implied that the goal of LMX theory is to explain the effects ofleadership on members, teams, and organizations. LMX theory claims thatleaders do not treat each subordinate the same. LMX refers to the degree ofemotional support and exchange of valuable resources between a supervisor andhis/her direct subordinate (Liden et al. 2008). In other words, it measures theextent to which both parties engage in a process of reciprocated social exchange(Masterson, 2000). Relationships high in LMX are characterized by high levelsof mutual trust, respect, and obligation (Nie and Lämsä 2013).Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) posits that leaders develop differentialtypes of relationships with each of their work unit members through a series ofwork-related exchanges Graen, Cashman (1975) and Graen, Scandura, (1987).
11The quality of these relationships reflects the extent to which a leader andhis/her work unit members mutually exchange resources and support. Whereaslow quality LMX-relationships are based on exchanges directly specified by theemployment contract, high quality LMX relationships include exchanges of

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Term
Winter
Professor
eva
Tags
Management, Sociology, The Land, Organizational studies and human resource management, researcher, LMX

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