♦Loyalties:⇒Percentages:•Patriots (pro-Revolution) 45%•Loyalists (anti-Revolution) 20%•Neutrals (uh…neutral…) 35%⇒Loyalists: •Slaves (Dunmore’s Proclamation – freedom if you fight for Brits)•British-appointed officials•Merchants (economic reasons)⇒Neutrals:•Don’t care-ists•Pacifists (like the Quakers)•Self-preservationists•Opportunists – switched sides a lot♦Advantages/Disadvantages⇒Brit Advantages:•Strong navy•Modern weapons•More soldiers•Professional•Organized•Hessian help⇒Brit Disadvantages:•Foreign land•Overly cocky•Strategy to conquer cities not the general area (why do colonists care about cities?•Poor strategy⇒American Advantages:•Knew the land•Guerilla warfare•Had a cause•George Washington gave inspiration to soldiersStrong, brave, and Superman⇒American Disadvantages:•Army sucks
Only 1/3 of colonists are PatriotsMost people more loyal to their colony than the national governmentBad training until Baron von Steuben comes to helpMostly from New England…MASSHOLES!•Unstable government (or lack thereof)Congress can’t tax people to pay for their army•Exports go away until the Treaty of Paris (2ndone) is signed…no $!♦Strategy:⇒British Strategy “Northern Strategy”:•Break the colonies in half•Attack the major cities•Blockade ports with the navy•Divide & Conquer amongst the people•Use loyalists and slaves⇒American Strategy:•Guerilla warfare – annoy them until they give up•Alliance with a British enemy•NO DECISIVE LOSSES – keep the guys alive•War of attritionMake them quit so we don’t actually have to win•Fabian strategy (named after Quintus Fabius Maximus)Preserve armyFight war of endurance⊗Problems with morale♦To Battle!⇒Brits take NY easily, Washington goes to NJ⇒Trenton:•Brit. Gen. Howe staying in NY•Washington crosses the Delaware & fights against Hessians & winsThey were all drunk – weren’t expecting a battle on Xmas eve!⇒Princeton:•Right after Trenton•Gen. Howe tricked and Brits captured•Raised American morale⇒Saratoga•Brit’s want to have three armies converge at Albany to cut off NE from the ChesapeakeGenerals Howe, Burgoyne, and another dude•Howe gets sidetracked & decides to capture Philadelphia insteadWins and decides to hang out for awhile with women & beer•Benedict Arnold leads American troops on raids to irritate BurgoyneSlows Burgoyne down
•Arnold & Gen. Horatio Gates defeat Burgoyne @ Saratoga. He surrenders!The French now think we might actually win leads to alliance⇒Valley Forge•Washington camps and gets German Baron von Steuben to train soldiersHe forced people to actually trainTaught them how to break tradition to win (march w/o drums, etc)♦Political Junkeses⇒1777: Britain offers American home rule, which is what we wanted in the first place•No! Now we want independence. Take that stupid Brits!