Kings keeping them in check the church operated

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excommunicate/interdict kings, keeping them in check The Church operated separately from the king and had its own bishops Priests had to shave and remained celibate Popes were the sole and final authority for all Christians Shintoism Arose in Japan, it was based around the Yamato clan and the goddess of light, Amaterasu Amaterasu had created this world, and in it, she had left her chosen people, which were the Japanese and the Yamato. However, she decided not to help the people directly, since they were “chosen” and so over time, religion became more secular Eventually, Shintoism began to say that they were not perfect people, that they had to try and become perfect After becoming perfect and dying, they would become something called Kamis, which were spirits of sacred ancestors/various natural phenomena. Helped the royal Yamato clan claim descent from the sun goddess Islam (Chapter 11) The founder was Muhammad, a member of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca, which was one the wealthiest tribe, for they taxed people on the way to Mecca At first, not everyone liked Islam, and Muhammad eventually had to escape (Hijra) because his followers were being attacked, the property was stolen Eventually, after converting the people of Medina, he returned to Mecca with his people, and eventually, took back Mecca for Islam He got rid of the idols that previously were in the Kaaba (House of Allah) and reinstated
the Kaaba for Islamic purposes Also, Muhammad started getting revelations from the angel Gabriel, and these were Allah’s exact words, which were then composed in the Islamic holy book, the Quran. The umma was the community of Muslims, which replaced all identities except the religious. This also helped Islam spread further. Umma vs. Traditional tribes: acceptance was based on religion rather than birth, and many initiatives were taken by a ruler, Muhammad (which later became the caliphs) Eventually, this led to the foundations of Islam: the 5 pillars Prayer - must pray to Allah, shows deference, and must go through a cleansing ritual before doing so Hajj - the journey to Mecca and the Kaaba Fasting (during the month of Ramadan) Declaration of Faith - Muhammad is the last prophet of Allah, who is the one and only god Charity ***Jihad is sometimes seen as the sixth pillar. Jihad is the struggle with oneself to achieve salvation After Muhammad’s death, there was no clear line of succession but came the 4 Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu Bakr - the first of the rightly guided caliphs Omar Usman - son-in-law of Muhammad Ali - son-in-law of Muhammad, it is in his name that there is a schism, for the Shia vs. Sunni schism arose due to leadership reasons based on merit vs. family After this came the Umayyad Caliphate Expanded greatly, and caliphs were hereditary Capital moved from Medina to Damascus Umayyad were rich people who lived lavish lives, and the people didn’t like this

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