2015 Players were also less likely to cooperate with another player who bought

2015 players were also less likely to cooperate with

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another player who bought in-game advantages compared to a player who earned them through gameplay time alone (Evers et al., 2015). Even if the player with the advantages was an ally, teammates still disliked that player (Evers et al., 2015). The reason for this is as mentioned before, teammates reflect badly on themselves since one’s own relative standing is lowered in the game (Evers et al., 2015). However, players are tempted to buy in-game advantages if they are confronted with other players who have acquired such advantages (Evers et al., 2015). The players generally approved the use of ornamental or decorative items that did not accommodate in-game advantages (Evers et al., 2015). Furthermore, the study found out that consumers thought ornamental items should be permanent and functional items with in-game advantages should be temporary (Evers et al., 2015). According to a study done by Artz and Kitecheos (2016), it was found that most consumers will not purchase a virtual good if it gave them an advantage in the game. They also found that the majority of consumers think that the use of microtransactions in a premium priced video game is an unfair practice since a premium price has already been paid, and for that they believe they should get the full game with all benefits included. However, a minority felt that the purchase of microtransactions in a premium priced video game is good use of their money because it supports video game developers, particularly indie ones (Artz & Kitcheos, 2016).
13 3.4 Loot boxes Loot boxes have been compared to baseball cards, which in the early 90’s generated around $1.2 billion at its peak of sales. Collectors would buy packs hoping it would reveal rare, limited edition cards (Jeff, 2009). Loot boxes function in a similar manner in video games, where consumers are guaranteed to get something from a loot box, though the quality or rarity is unknown. However, one major difference in this comparison is that baseball cards were tradeable in real life, which is not the case with in most cases with loot boxes and the virtual goods that are obtained from opening them. In some video games though, players can digitally trade in-game items and in-game currency for real money in an aftermarket that is run on third party websites (Griffiths, 2018). Or on official player-to-player trading forums, like there is on the Steam platform for video games such as Counter Strike: Global Offensive. The purchase of loot boxes takes place within online video games and is seen being similar to a lottery mechanism in the virtual world (Koeder & Tanaka, 2017). Consumers purchase loot boxes or virtual keys to unlock loot boxes with microtransactions, and then receive virtual goods by opening or unlocking loot boxes and get a chance selection of available virtual items (Koeder & Tanaka, 2017). However, loot boxes don’t always have to be bought and can be won through progression milestones and game time, with different methods in different genres of video games (Griffiths, 2018). These boxes also take the form of packs,

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