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acquisition of morals is carried on today by sociologists, psychologists, and neurologists. Martineau's approach to studying morals involved examining moral principlesin different societies in order to draw conclusions about the degree to which these societies had progressed. She used three measures to study progress: (1) the condition of the less powerful groups in society, (2) the cultural attitudes towards authority and autonomy, and (3) the extent to which all individuals were provided the tools to realize autonomous moral action. Martineau was deeply concerned with gender, racial, and class inequality. Forthis reason, while Martineau was researching the morals within America, she focused on marriage patterns and slavery. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)According to Charlotte Gilman, economic arrangements were to blame for the gendered division of labor in American society. Gilman can be compared to Marx for her focus on (1) economic arrangements as detrimental to humanwell-being and for her focus on (2) two main classes: men and women (Marx focused on the bourgeoisie and the proletariat). Gilman theorized that economic arrangements produced the “sexuo-economic arrangement”: a master class of men and a subordinate class of women (sounds like Marx). Like Marx, Gilman believed that meaningful work is crucial for human well-being. However, unlike Marx, Gilman was more concerned with how women, rather than the working class, were alienated from their species being because they were either not allowed to work or were marginalized in the workforce. Gilman argued that this sexuo-economic arrangement in which the male is the bread-winner and head of the household while the female is the homemaker is wasteful in terms of both societal efficiency and productivity. Moreover, and much more importantly, this sexuo-economic arrangement exploited women physically and emotionally - strong words. Her solution involved the economic emancipationof women and the dismantling of the gendered household. The former involved opening up opportunities for women to work for wages in the public
sphere, and the latter involved a professionalization of household work, such as paid child care and food service. Both Marx and Gilman express the importance of the work we do. Marx explained the process of alienation in great detail (refer back to the Marx chapter and lesson). He claimed that the proletarians are forced to work unnaturally under oppressive conditions. Gilman’s claims are consistent with Marx’s when she writes that “restricting or denying the individual access to meaningful work reduces the individual to a condition of unhumanity (pg. 302).” In much the same way as Marx described the conditions of the proletariat, Gilman theorized that gender inequality was the cause of many social pathologies, such as class conflict (hello Marx), political corruption, andpoverty. both Marx and Gilman express the importance of the work we do. Marx explained the process of alienation in great detail (refer back to the Marx chapter and lesson). He claimed that the proletarians are forced to