ESBJORN METAWORRY ACCEPTED COPY.doc

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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Study 1 seeks to test the MCM in youth by investigating the relationship between metacognitions and worry and anxiety in a community sample of children and adolescents, and assess the strength of the MCM in predicting pathological worry and anxiety in youth. Based on the MCM of GAD, we hypothesize that there will be positive relationships between positive metacognitive beliefs and levels of anxiety and worry. We also hypothesized that negative beliefs about worry, as the driving factor in GAD (Wells & Carter, 2001), will have the greatest influence on the variance of worry and anxiety levels. Methods Participants. Participants were recruited from public schools in Denmark, grades four through nine (median grade = 6; age range 9-17 years). A total of 1134 children and adolescents participated in an extensive testing battery providing data to a number of studies. We expected this to increase the risk of randomly missed items. We replaced missing scores with the mean of the scales, when 20% or less of the items were missing in a scale. Children with more than 20% missing on any of the applied scales were eliminated from the present study. Thus, the final sample consisted of 587 youth, after eliminating cases with missing data ( n = 547). We found no statistical differences in gender, parental education, number of parents in the home, or family income between participating children and those who were eliminated from the present study due to incomplete questionnaires. A statistically significant difference in age ( t (1096) = -7.01, p < .0001) was found between those who were excluded from the study ( M = 11.90, SD = 1.59) and those who were included ( M = 12.59, SD = 1.66). However, the difference between means was just six months of age. Of the final sample, 300 (51%) were children (9 to 12 years of age; mean ( SD ) 11 years (9.9 months)), 165 (55%) of whom were female. Adolescents made up 287 (49%) of the participants (13 6 6 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135
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METACOGNITIONS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS to 17 years of age; mean ( SD ) 14 years (10.8 months)); 157 (55%) were female. The sample was selected to include children attending 4 th grade through the end of public school (9 th grade). By 4 th grade most children are expected to have acquired sufficient reading skills to complete questionnaires. Adolescents were sampled in addition to children, in order to examine any age- related effects. Measures. Metacognitive beliefs. The Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children 30 (MCQ-C 30; Blinded reference) is a translation of the German Meta-Kognitions Fragebogen für Kinder (MKF- K; Gerlach, Adam, Marschke, & Melfsen, 2008), which is a simplified version of the adolescent version of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-A; Cartwright-Hatton et al., 2004). In contrast to the MCQ-C (Bacow et al., 2009), it contains all of the original five subscales that make up the adolescent and adult versions of the questionnaire. It assesses metacognitive processes based on five
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