Another popular book of social criticism looking

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Another popular book of social criticism ,Looking Backward, 2000- 1887,waswritten by Edward Bellamy in 1888. It envisioned a future era in which a coop-erative society had eliminated poverty, greed, and crime. So enthusiastic weremany of the readers of George's and Bellamy's books that they joined variousreform movements and organizations to try to implement the authors' ideas.Both books encouraged a shift in American public opinion away from purelaissez-faire and toward greater government regulation.Settlement HousesConcerned about the lives of the poor, a numberof young, well-educated women and men of the middle class settled intoimmigrant neighborhoods to learn about the problems of immigrant familiesfirst-hand. Living and working in places called settlement houses, the youngreformers hoped to relieve the effects of poverty by providing social servicesfor people in the neighborhood. The most famous such experiment was HullHouse in Chicago , which was started by Jane Addams and a college classmatein 1889. Settlement houses taught English to immigrants, pioneered early-childhood education, taught industrial arts, and established neighborhoodtheaters and music schools. By 1910 there were more than 400 settlementhouses in America 's largest cities.Settlement workers were civic-minded volunteers who created the founda-tion for the later job of social worker. They were also political activists whocrusaded for child-labor laws, housing reform, and women 's rights . Two settle-ment workers, Frances Perkins and Harry Hopkins, went on to leadership rolesin President Franklin Roosevelt's reform program, the New Deal, in the 1930s.Social GospelIn the 1880s and 1890s, a number of Protestant clergyespoused the cause of social justice for the poor-especially the urban poor.They preached what they called the Social Gospel, or the importance of applyingChristian principles to social problems. Leading the Social Gospel movementin the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a Baptist minister from New York,Walter Rauschenbusch , who worked in the poverty-stricken neighborhood ofNew York City called Hell 's Kitchen, wrote several books urging organizedreligions to take up the cause of social justice. His Social Gospel preachinglinked Christianity with the Progressive reform movement (see Chapter 21)and encouraged many middle-class Protestants to attack urban problems.THE GROWTH OF CITIES AND AMERICAN CULTURE, 1865-1900365
Religion and SocietyAll religions adapted to the stresses and challengesof modem urban living. Roman Catholicism grew rapidly from the influx ofnew immigrants. Catholic leaders such as Cardinal James Gibbons of Balti-more inspired the devoted support of old and new immigrants by defendingthe Knights of Labor and the cause of organized labor. Among Protestants,Dwight Moody, who founded the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago in 1889,would help generations ofurban evangelists to adapt traditional Christianity tocity life. The Salvation Army, imported from England in 1879, provided basic

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