Legitimate power: derived from position of authority; “formal authority”. Reward power: when someone has control over resources or rewards of another. Coercive power: when someone has control over punishments in an organization Personal Power : comes from person themselves. Expert power: derived from person’s expertise, skill, or knowledge. Referent power: when others have a desire to be associated with a person Takeaways from Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment : Power can affect us in ways we might not be able to predict. Context is a powerful factor whether or not power is abused How Power Corrupts : Self-serving attributions. Creation of rules that favor the self. Preference for own group. Lack of attention to subordinates. Tendency to perceive followers as ‘lesser’ beings INFLUENCE : use of behavior to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others. Directional: Most frequently downward (managers influencing employees), Lateral: peers influencing peers, Upward: employees influencing managers. Ciadlini’s 6 Principles of Influence : the six traits that creates influence. Liking : More inclined to comply with a request from someone whom they find likeable.“You went to University of Idaho? So did I!” Reciprocity: More likely to comply with a request from someone who has previously provided a favor or concession. “Of course I’ll help you, you had my back last week.” Consistency : After committing to a position, people are more likely to comply with requests consistent with that position. “You’ve already given me a 2% bonus, why not make it 4%?” Social Proof / Consistency : More likely to comply with requests if they are consistent with what similar others are doing. “I’ve heard all the great new recruits are going to Seattle. Authority : More likely to be persuaded by someone who possesses more status or expertise, regardless of the strength of their arguments. Come to the negotiation dressed in a fancy suit! Scarcity : As a resource becomes scarcer, it becomes more critical and valuable in our minds, even more than it deserves. “This is a tough job market, not many open positions out there this year.” Soft Influence Tactics (most effective) : Rational persuasion: use of logical arguments & hard facts. Inspirational appeal: appeal to target’s values & ideals. Consultation: asking target to participate. Collaboration: making it easier for target by helping complete task, providing resources, removing obstacles Responses to Influence Tactics : Internalization: Target agrees with and becomes committed to request, Behavioral and attitudinal changes, Most effective. Compliance: Target is willing to perform request, but does so with indifference, Behavioral change only. Resistance: Target is opposed to request and attempts to avoid doing it, No change in behavior or attitude.
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- Spring '14