PLCP 3410 Study Guide --PART I

Sunni muslims at height of pyramid hierarchy of shahs

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- Sunni Muslims at height of pyramid, hierarchy of Shah’s subjects - millet system, religious group, ran administration of areas, Shah appointed millets. - gender separation and roles, women in house, men work, war, and make money - guilds, taxation, competition existed, tradesmen, - “society consisted of rulers and ruled” - ruling class leaders of military, bureaucracy, and religion - still classes intermingled regularly, in markets and coffeehouses. Changing Contexts – Challenge of the West - European powers in Northeast use New World and technology to catch up to and surpass Ottoman military and economic output. - England, France, Holland, Spain, Portugal, and soon Russia exert economic and political pressure on the Ottoman government - Inflation and price increases result from increased supply of silver from New World - Capitulation treaties allow European trade without taxes, markets flooded with European goods, devastate Ottoman merchant class. - European powers start to protect non-Muslims as persecuted minority, although no one had equal rights in Ottoman Empire – undermine Ottoman authority. - Ottomans lose large territory to Russia in north and French in East (Egypt) by beginning of the 19 th century. - Serbs achieve independence in 1817, Greeks gain independence 1830 with British help. - French conquer Algeria in 1830. Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt and Reaction - Napoleon and France invade in 1798, under guise to free the Egyptians from Ottoman oppression, spread lies that Napoleon a Muslim - goal was to cut off trade to Britain through the Mediterranean - unsuccessful, British with Ottomans push French out by 1801. “Eastern Question” how to handle decline of the Ottoman Empire as its neighbors gradually strengthened, problem was maintaining a balance of power in Europe. - dominated international relations until end of WWI - those with less power, like Russians, wanted to undermine Ottomans, while those with more power wanted Ottomans to stay to keep the status quo
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- Egypt: Mehmet Ali - Mehmet Ali (in Arabic Muhammad Ali) – not the boxer, but the ruler of Egypt. - established ruling dynasty that would last until 1952. - Developed modern state and army, with own industrial base, education, tax collection, foreign advisers and experts for military training of officers - New scientific and technical institutes. - paid for by state monopoly over cotton, and rest of agriculture. - tried to expand through Arabian peninsula and into Syria, British come to rescue of the Ottomans and ban all monopolies in Ottoman Empire - Mehmet withdrew from mini-empire with the deal that his heirs would rule and Egypt would remain independent. This remained mostly true until 1952 - Tanzimet Reforms Tanzimet means reorganization, rulers knew change necessary after Mehmet’s armies approached doorsteps of Istanbul.
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