Number of studies that have looked at technical and

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Chapter 2 / Exercise 051
Essentials of Marketing
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number of studies that have looked at technical and organizational/behavioral factors thatinfluence effective implementation(Cinquini, Lino and Collini,2008). In recent time,researchers has given attention to contingent factors that affect the adoption of advancedproduct costing techniques and related influence of the variables that drive towards higherlevel of cost system sophistication(Paolo and Marelli, 2008;Andrea,Alessandro and Tenucci, 2008). Drury and Tayles (1994) argued that two factors account for the recent increased focus on the theory and practice of product costing. The first arises from the emergence of a belief that there is a wide gap between the theory and practice of management accounting(see Scapens,1991).The second factor relates to the enormous amount of publicity that has been generated by the writings of Kaplan(1984,1985,1988a,1988b,1990),Johnson and Kaplan (1987) and Cooper (1990) through a series of articles used for criticizing the current system of product costing. Meanwhile, vast publicity is given to developing sophisticated systems (see Cooper, 1988a; Cooper 1988b; Cooper and Kaplan, 1992; Kaplan and Cooper, 1988). At present, rigorous competition (local and international) and fast changing information technology has forced companies to seek for modern business techniques. Market structures of product and services have succeeded in forcing Manufacturing organization to manage their cost according to existing or expected competition. In a period of cut – throat competition, companies tend to become learner, responsive and agile, with ever – increasing efficiency and effectiveness. In order to retain the competitive status, a company should be able to provide high quality services/products in a short period of time with lowest possible costs. In lowering cost, accurate cost information gathering becomes a critical issue of intricate concern for every aspect of business and it affects the pricing policies and
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 051
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performance reviews. This is not a critical issue for only manufacturing companies, it is also a sine qua non for the success of service – oriented organizations (Baykasoglu and Kaplanoglu, 2008). Considering the rapid changes experienced in the modern business resulting from globalization and elimination of trade barriers among different national economies. Manufacturing organization face more and more intense competition which forces them to adapt to the specific demands of their customers primarily by product diversification and differentiation, flexible delivery dates, a wide range of distribution channels coupled with special customers’ services. As a result of this development, there is a need for efficient and effective management of material flows and their associated costs. Transparent reporting of manufacturing cost and accurate accounting of the cost components present a significant factor for the successful management of materials and related input in manufacturing organization.

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