o E.g. Kier (in Katzenstein’s book) gives the example of how emphasis on ceremony, tradition and development of a common language and espirit de corps testifies to the strength of the military’s organizational culture, which determines the type of military doctrines viewed as desirable or feasible o Focus on how carriers of ideas use power and influence to recreate organizations; organizations then exert some independent impact on political life, and hence we can assess their influence after ideas have been embedded in organizations Ideas become embedded in informal institutions (favoured by sociologists); when beliefs and ideas have become accepted or instinctual parts of the social world o Between beliefs becoming fixed early in life (Inglehart) and them being induced, and if successful, becomes the new natural (Laitin); both processes not mutually exclusive o Documentation of ideas being embedded into informal institutions through long term survey data and qualitative methods: track rise of prominence of particular ideas and continue analyses into period when material conditions change dramatically and by observing actors see whether they remain constant, and if so they have been embedded (Longitudinal) o Studying beliefs and attitudes of actors across different contexts, if these actors continue to operate even when it contradicts material interests, shows that they have been embedded (latitudinal) - How do ideas, norms and culture affect political life? The Civic Culture failed to account for connection between beliefs and outcomes; process of existence, institutionalisation (process of being embedded) and outcome Political behaviour: product of both actor’s motivations and constraints/opportunities of environment o Ideational scholarship encourages us to see how motivations, interests and preferences shape behaviours of actors instead of them being assumed o Ideational scholarship also helps us to understand how characteristics of different environments can shape decision making To find trends as to how particular ideational variables are linked to particular outcomes through particular pathways or mechanisms Ideational variables have to be clearly connected to decisions and behaviours, and they must manifest in a small set of theoretically possible outcomes o Hence ideas and culture may be consistent with some outcomes but inconsistent with others to ensure falsifiability and enable researchers to construct counterfactual arguments Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky (2004): Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda (pp. 725-728) - Study of informal institutions to: understand incentives that enable and constrain political behaviour explain institutional outcomes mediate effects of electoral rule shape formal institutional outcomes - Definitions 29
Institutions: rules and procedures (both formal and informal) that structure social interaction by constraining and enabling actors’ behaviour Informal institutions o Cultural traditions; BUT what about those rooted from legislative norms?