Esci 274 genetics the environment and health

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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Chromosome     mutations In multicellular organisms,  mutations can be subdivided into:  germline mutations (which can be passed on to descendants)  somatic mutations (cannot be transmitted to descendants) (in animals)
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ESCI 274 Germline Mutations A heritable change in the DNA that occurrs in a germ cell (a cell destined to become an egg or in the sperm) or the zygote at the single-cell stage. When transmitted to a child, a germline mutation is incorporated in every cell of their body. Germline mutations play a key role in genetic diseases
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ESCI 274 somatic mutations Somatic mutations can occur in any of the cells of the body except the germ cells (sperm and egg) and therefore are not passed on to children. These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Chromosome     mutations
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Chromosome     mutations
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ESCI 274 Insertion (also called an insertion mutation)- On a chromosome level, an insertion refers to the insertion of a larger sequence into a chromosome. This can happen due to unequal crossover during meiosis. Depending upon where they occur, they may or may not be hazardous.
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ESCI 274 For example, if these insertions occur in a coding region of a gene. This will cause the active translation of the gene to encounter a premature stop codon , resulting in an end to translation and the production of a truncated protein. These truncated proteins frequently are unable to function properly or at all and can possibly result in any number of genetic disorders depending on the gene in which the insertion occurs.
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Chromosome      mutations a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health At the chromosomal level, mutations  can cause visible  physical defects besides  malfunctioning organs  and  lack (or excess) of proteins It can also make you more  susceptible  to some types of  diseases/illnesses Chromosome     mutations
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Inheritance of Hemophilia (sex-linked trait) Chromosome     mutations Affects the chromosome X
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Affects the chromosome X Why is it more difficult for  women to be hemophilic?   Chromosome     mutations
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Males are  hemizygous receiving their only X chromosome  from their mother Females are  heterozygous inheriting X chromosomes  from both parents Chromosome     mutations
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health Chromosome     mutations
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ESCI 274 Genetics, the Environment and Health
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