individuals. Hiroshima was specifically chosen due to its military importance and the bomb dropped here exploded over 2,000 feet above the city had a blast equal to 15,000 tons of TNT, destroying over 5 square miles of the city. When this did not prompt the Japanese to surrender Nagasaki was then chosen as the next target. The bomb dropped here was even more powerful, weighting nearly 10,000 pounds. As this bomb exploded it produced a 22 kiloton blast. After the
dropping of the second bomb Japan choose to surrender. All of these deaths were not immediate. Over half of these victims died months later from acute effects of the bombing such as burns, illness and radiation sickness. Another well known event occurred in April of 1986 in the Ukraine. During testing by engineers the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor exploded. The nuclear core despite all efforts, burned for four days. Dumping clay, lead and boron carbide onto into in an attempt to stop it only increased the core temperature. This directly caused radioactive substances to create a radioactive cloud that spread over the are of Belarus, Ukraine, Russian, Western Europe and even further. Assisting Agencies When any of these attacks occur, due to terrorist activities or unrelated, multiple agencies will need to be involved but mainly the Public Health Department. The PHB has already worked closely with agencies such as Homeland Security to have situational plans. One of these is the Health Threats Resilience Division which is part of the Office of Health Affairs. This department helps prepare for a variety of attacks from terrorist groups. “The combination of detection, rapid notification, and response planning helps federal, state, and local decision-makers take steps to save lives and mitigate damage.” 3 (Walter, 2016) Another department is the BioWatch, which assists jurisdictions across the US develop their own unique response plans to prepare for these situations. Local, state, and federal BioWatch agencies will coordinate training exercises to not only test for a particular scenario, but then to evaluate so that improvements can be made. They will critique the communication effectiveness between agencies and the decisions that were made.
Not only is it vital to be knowledgeable in dealing with these events, but we also need to take action to prevent any unnecessary accidents. In August 2013 an executive order was signed by the then current president to improve chemical safety and security. Departments such as the Department of Labor, Department of Homeland Security, and the Environmental Protection Agency worked efficiently to not only to implement this Executive Order, but also to improve coordination and regulation of chemical facilities. “ Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Working Group shall produce a proposal for a coordinated, flexible data-sharing process which can be utilized to track data submitted to agencies for federally regulated chemical facilities, including locations, chemicals, regulated entities, previous infractions, and other relevant information. The proposal shall allow for the sharing of information with and by State, local, and
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