sector, which encompasses the hierarchical structure, acts as an obstacle to change. Each decision and approval must be channeled through the different hierarchies that exist in the organisation. The author further claimed that under a bureaucratic system, there is a constant emphasis on whether procedures, values, ethics and policies have been followed. This acts as a barrier to change implementation as the focus in not on achieving efficiency but on the fact whether the procedures set have been followed. Selvadurai (2013) further advocated that these rigid policies can lead an organisation to doubt everything during the change initiative and jeopardise it from being rational. The author also coined that it is important to have procedures and policies set. However, there should be some in-built mechanism in them so that organisations can deviate from them in 17
certain situation. These in-built mechanisms should provide for convenient and timely action or it may defeat the purpose of having them. 2.3.2 Stability Reeves et al. (2007) defined stability as the ability to maintain a constant behavior for both small and large perturbations. Selvadurai (2013) argued that the element of stability in the public sector may act as an obstacle to effective change management initiatives. Stability in employment can also create obstacles to effective change implementation. Selvadurai (2013) further added that the helplessness of public sector organisations to remove human obstacles in a change initiative is a barrier to change. Given the fact that employees have a job security from the government, the motivation to implement change and getting out of their comfort zone is minimal. Based on the work of Selvadurai (2013), it was found that there is there is no repercussions for public officers not performing well at work and there is no reward for those who are highly productive at work. According to the Pay Research Bureau (2016), all the grades and salary in the public sector have already been established. For example, there is no difference in salary of an effective word processing operator and an ineffective one. This lack of incentive and motivation can act as a barrier to the implementation of effective change initiatives since employees perceive change as pointless. 2.3.3 Political Interventions Kickert (2010) warned that politicking was a factor hindering the good practices in the public sector. Abney and Lauth (1985), argued that elected officials are frequently found to intervene in decision making in the civil service. Lee (2001), through a research, found that public administrators are required to follow the instructions of political nominees or elected members without arguments. Selvadurai (2013) posit that political intervention in public administration is a major obstacle to change management in the public sector. It is often so, since elected members often intervene in decision making and leaders in public administrations are faced with dilemmas to abort an excellent change initiative or resist.
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