While the standard tool for manufacturing and service

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While the standard tool for manufacturing and service process design is the flowchart, recently service gurus have begun calling the flowchart a service blueprint to emphasize the importance of process design. A unique feature of the service blueprint is the distinction made between the high customer contact aspects of the service (the parts of the process that the customer sees) and those activities that the customer does not see. Basic blueprinting describes the features of the service design but does not provide any direct guidance for how to make the process conform to that design. An approach to this problem is the application of poka-yokes —procedures that block the inevitable mistake from becoming a service defect. Poka-yokes (roughly translated from the Japanese as "avoid mistakes", lead to fail-safing or fool proofing a process) are common in factories and consist of such things as fixtures to ensure that parts can be attached only in the right way, electronic switches that automatically shut off equipment if a mistake is made, kitting of parts prior to assembly to make sure the right quantities are used, and checklists to ensure that the right sequence of steps is followed. Examples are included in the text including in amusement parks, operating rooms, and waiting lines. Chapter - Chapter 06 #142 143. Discuss the application of "Process Charts" for process improvement, giving an example of its use. Include how poka-yokes can help in process charts. One important advantage of process flowcharting is that it allows decision makers to identify opportunities for improving the process. Thus, process flowcharting is related to a concept called Value Stream Mapping (VSM) which analyzes processes for improvement. A good example is in the text showing the steps in shipping a container from China to Toronto. Process flowcharting can also be used to identify which activities needs poka-yokes. Student should discuss ideas where poka-yokes could be used! Chapter - Chapter 06 #143 144. Discuss the principle known as Little's Law. Simple systems can be analyzed quickly using a principle known as Little's law. Little's law says there is a long-term relationship between the inventory, throughput, and flow time of a production system in steady state. The relationship is: Inventory = Throughput rate Flow time where flow time is the time that it takes a unit to flow through the process from beginning to end. The throughput rate is the output rate that the process is expected to produce over a period of time. Chapter - Chapter 06 #144
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145. Discuss the relationship between Inventory Turn and Days-of-supply.
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