that the client accepts their remaining issues, understands the historical nature of their difficulties, and can integrate troubles from the past into their current situation (Corey, 2009) Multicultural Strengths and Shortcomings: Strengths psychoanalytical theory emphasizes extensive therapy for its practitioners, allowing them to uncover and explore their own biases and prejudices making psychoanalytical therapists more aware of their prejudices and potential countertransference triggers (Corey, 2009) p sychoanalytical therapy can also be easily modify to accommodate a great range of culturally diverse populations (Corey, 2009) Erickson's psychosocial model is particularly applicable to people of color (Corey, 2009) Shortcomings historically been considered a long term therapy and, therefore, costly (Corey, 2009) rooted in beliefs that are based on upper and middle class values, making many lower class clients view it as irrelevant (Corey, 2009) can be ambiguous and vague, which may be off-putting to people from cultures that expect clear direction from mental health professionals (Corey, 2009) Research Supporting the Effectiveness: psychoanalytic model of therapy birthed many of the most powerful tools for understanding narcissistic and borderline personality disorders (Corey, 2009) has shown promise in treating depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and even addiction (Hopper, 1995). Limitations/Criticisms: length of time required for effective treatment (Corey, 2009) expense / cost prohibitive (Corey, 2009)
lack of trained professionals (Corey, 2009) lack of responsibility placed on father figures in early childhood experiences (Corey, 2009) References: Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning. Hopper, E. (1995). A psychoanalytical theory of 'drug addiction'. The International Journal of Psycho- Analysis, 76 (6), 1121-1142. Adlerian Theoretical Views Name of theory: Adlerian Founder of the theory: Alfred Adler View of human nature (include innate capacities/capabilities and motivational constructs): human behavior is not solely determined by environment or heredity (Corey, 2009) humans have the ability to influence, create and interpret events within their own lives (Corey, 2009) rejects Freud's deterministic view of human nature, but recognize that biological and environmental factors limit an individual's ability to create and choose (Corey, 2009) Adler emphasized choice and responsibility, striving for success and perfection, and searching for meaning in life (Corey. 2009) Adlerian theory focuses on inferiority feelings, not as a sign of weakness, but as a source of creativity and motivator for success (Corey, 2009) Adler believed that humans are driven to overcome feeling of inferiority and to pursue higher levels of achievement (Corey, 2009) View of pathology/maladjustment (how do individuals develop dysfunction/mental illness): Adlerians do not believe clients to be sick, they are uneducated or misinformed (Corey, 2009) clients are often believed to be discourages, therefore encouragement is believed to be the most effective tool for changing a person's beliefs (Corey, 2009)
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