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Seven Years war/French Indian Wara.Hapsburgs and Bourbons have always been on opposite sides, but it was this war on the European continent that they had been on the same side for the first time in recent history.b.Considered to be the diplomatic revolution of the 18thcentury.i.Austria and france=friends.c.European theater:i.Hapsburg vs. Hohenzollern d.Louis 16thand Maria Theresa after the 7 years war where they workedtogether, decided to cement their friendship by marrying her youngestdaughter Marie Antoinette.VI.Eventually absolutism doesn’t work, constitutionalism works better.____
Stuart DynastyMary Stuart: Queen of Scots; Queen Consort of FranceReign as Queen of Scotland; Reign as Queen of FranceMarried 3 times; 2ndmarriage only produces and heirMarried Henry Stuart (2ndhusband)King Consort of ScotlandKnown as Lord DarnleyFather to her son King James VIMary flees Scotland so son takes over her reignJames VI (in Scotland) and I (in England)King of ScotsKing of England (1603) (Elizabeth I left throne to JamesI; he was aProtestant and related to her)FIRSTmonarch of England from the House of StuartProtestantCame from a long line of Catholic monarchsWrote: “The Trew Law of Free Monarchies” and “Basilikon Doron”Established an ideological base for the divine rights of the kingsShowed absolutisttendenciesBelieved he was strong enough to install centralized monarchy now thatCrown vs. Parliament: both houses held little power during 15thcentury dueto absolute supremacy of the Sovereign; this was reversed when the Stuarts came to power – Stuarts provoked issues such as taxation, religion and royal powersJames I and ParliamentOften disagreed with Parliament; managed to compromise and maintain stability;ruled without it for 10 yearsMarried Anne of DenmarkChildren: only 3 lived out of infancy; one surviving son = CharlesI (futureKing of England) and daughter = ElizabethCharles I became King of England, Scotland and IrelandStruggle for power with the Parliament of EnglandFirst monarch to be executedReligious conflicts permeated Charles’ reign; married Catholic- Henrietta
Maria (regardless of object by Parliament and public opinion)Henrietta MariaState of Maryland named after herCape Henrietta Maria named after herJames I and Charles I both ProtestantsSuspected of being Pro-CatholicDevelopment of radical Calvinism – Puritanism“Purity” Anglican church of Catholic ritesParliament consisted mostly of PuritansShowdown between Charles I and Parliamentsummoned and dissolved Parliament 3 timestried to rule without itfinancing his reign by selling commercial monopoliesultimately needed Parliament when Scottish rebellion/Bishops war brokeoutApril 1640: Short Parliament; called because it only lasted 3 weeks1640-1653: Long Parliament: sat almost continuously during English Civil Waruntil 1653; reason summoned to ask it to pass finance bills, since Bishops’ Wars had bankrupted himEnglish Civil War:Series of armed conflictsand poltical machinations which took place between
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Elizabeth I, renaissance, i., Henry VIII of England, Elizabeth I of England, Mary I of England