Gestational diabetes a condition of glucose

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Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach
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Chapter 11 / Exercise 05
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach
Newman/Newman
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gestational diabetes A condition of glucose intolerance that may occur during pregnancy.
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Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach
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Chapter 11 / Exercise 05
Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach
Newman/Newman
Expert Verified
268 amniocentesis A proced ure done between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation in which a doctor removes a sma l l amount o f amniotic fl uid via a need le in the abdomen to test for genetic a bnormalities. chorionic villus sampling (CVS) A proced ure in which a small a mount of tissue from the placenta is analyzed for genetic abnorma lities. Figure 8.8 Two com mon proced u res for detecting abnormalities in preg na ncy are (a) a m niocentesis and (b) chorionic vi l l u s sam p ling (CVS). Ultrasound ----� scanner (a) Amniocentesis HUMAN SEXUALlTY prenatal tests are routinely used-a practice that is debatable. Part of the debate sur- rounds tests that might return a false-positive result, meaning that the test seems to show an abnormality that does not actually exist. For example, doctors might see what appears to be an abnormality on an ultrasound only to find out later that there was a glitch in the equipment or that what they thought they originally saw is no longer present. Receiving a false-positive result, only to find out later that the result was inaccurate, can be devas- tating, or at least cause unnecessary worry for a pregnant woman and her partner. As a consequence, some women question the practice of prenatal testing, or at least too much of it. Let's consider some common prenatal tests. Amniocentesis An amniocentesis is a procedure done usually between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. A doctor removes a small amount of amniotic fluid via a needle in the moth- er's abdomen (Figure 8.8). Genetic studies are done on the cells contained in the fluid to test for conditions such as Down syndrome and cystic fibrosis. Amniotic fluid can also give doctors information regarding the presence of defects such as spina bifida. Due to the higher rates of genetic abnormalities more common among older mothers, doctors recom- mend this test for women over the age of 35. Some women are concerned about the risks of an amniocentesis, particularly the risk of miscarriage. One study documented the risk of miscarriage to be about 0.06%, or 1 in 1,600 (Edelman et al., 2006). Another study estimated the risk to be between 0.13% and 0.97% for women who had an amniocentesis prior to week 24 of pregnancy, which is still quite low (Odibo et al., 2008). ChorionicVillus Sampling Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is another screening pro- cedure in which a doctor obtains a small amount of tissue from the placenta by insert- ing a thin, hollow tube into the vagina and through the cervix to reach the placenta (see Figure 8.8). The tissue is anal yz ed for chromosomal disorders and specific genetic dis- eases. This procedure can be performed as early as 10 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Ultrasound is a very common form of screening and is used often to moni- tor the development of the fetus throughout the pregnancy. In an ultrasound procedure, Amniotic fluid Placenta (b) Chorionic villus sampling
Reproduction: Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth (a) 3-D ultrasound image

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