lawlessness and chaos, and it was said that when a pharaoh ruled in accordance to maat then they would be prosperous. Also was said that Osiris, the god of the underworld, would judge humans and decide whether the dead could pass on to the “next world”.Hyksos: Beginning about 1630 BC they controlled Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1648-1540, lasting about a century during the second intermediate period. Probably originated in southern Levant or Palestine. The group responsible for the fall of the Middle Kingdom. Hyksos supposedly means “king shepherds” or “captive shepherds,” though most modern Egyptologists say it means “chieftains of a foreign hill country”. During 15th& 16thdynasties Egypt is ruled by the Hyksos. They ended up influencing the Egyptians in the future by leaving the horse & chariot. Period after the Hyksos is known as the New Kingdom. First pharaoh of the 18thdynasty, ahmose I, finally expelled them.Hatshepsut (1473 – 1458 according to the book): One of Tuthmosis II wives during the 18th dynasty, she was the second most famous female pharaoh. Hat was determined to rule in her own right, and she usurped the power from her ward, Tuthmosis III (who was too young to rule). Pharaoh was supposed to be a man historically, so Queen Hatshepsut turned into “King Hatshepsut” in scriptures occasionally, depicted as male in sphinxes, many inscriptions confuse the gender a lot. Reigned for 21 years. Said that the Hyksos people ruled without Ra, and that she was bringing Ra and maat back to Egypt. We don’t know how she died in 1469, may have been killed by Tuthmosis III.