Egypt nile river flows down to the mediterranean sea

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Egypt:Nile River – Flows down to the Mediterranean Sea over series of granite thresholds called cataracs. Each summer it overflows its banks, reviving the land with fresh water while depositing thick fresh soil. The Geography was key because the Egyptians lived along the Nile for resources. Ra/Amon-Ra: God of the Sun; rises to the chief god of Egypt status beginning in the 5thdynasty of the Old Kingdom. The Pharaohs took the god Ra as their special protector; Men from the city of Thebes who become Pharaohs in the 11thdynasty (Montu-Hotep – “mont is at peace”) started worshipping Mont; in the New Kingdom, during the 12thdynasty, a new, different patron god arose. first pharaoh (Ammenemes = Amenemhat I) (1991-1962 BC) “Amon is in front”; ram god that became the patron deity, later identified with the sun god Ra, Amon-Ra became the patron god for the rest of the Egyptian culture, except for a short period during the reign of Akhenaten, when Aten, the sun disc, was worshipped instead. Raw is said to have created all of the creatures of the earth.Maat: (“right order, justice”), Idea that arose during the Old Kingdom. “Truth, Justice and the Egyptian Way”; It was said to have existed if everything was in the order that the gods had ordained. Prevented corruption by the king in most instances. It was the antithesis of
lawlessness and chaos, and it was said that when a pharaoh ruled in accordance to maat then they would be prosperous. Also was said that Osiris, the god of the underworld, would judge humans and decide whether the dead could pass on to the “next world”.Hyksos: Beginning about 1630 BC they controlled Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1648-1540, lasting about a century during the second intermediate period. Probably originated in southern Levant or Palestine. The group responsible for the fall of the Middle Kingdom. Hyksos supposedly means “king shepherds” or “captive shepherds,” though most modern Egyptologists say it means “chieftains of a foreign hill country”. During 15th& 16thdynasties Egypt is ruled by the Hyksos. They ended up influencing the Egyptians in the future by leaving the horse & chariot. Period after the Hyksos is known as the New Kingdom. First pharaoh of the 18thdynasty, ahmose I, finally expelled them.Hatshepsut (1473 – 1458 according to the book): One of Tuthmosis II wives during the 18th dynasty, she was the second most famous female pharaoh. Hat was determined to rule in her own right, and she usurped the power from her ward, Tuthmosis III (who was too young to rule). Pharaoh was supposed to be a man historically, so Queen Hatshepsut turned into “King Hatshepsut” in scriptures occasionally, depicted as male in sphinxes, many inscriptions confuse the gender a lot. Reigned for 21 years. Said that the Hyksos people ruled without Ra, and that she was bringing Ra and maat back to Egypt. We don’t know how she died in 1469, may have been killed by Tuthmosis III.

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