Mores norms based on broad social morals whose

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MORES norms based on broad social morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation LAWS the strongest social norms supported by codified social sanctions Why is it important to study deviance? Durkheim: deviance is functional for a society Clarifies moral boundaries Reaffirms norms Promotes social unity Promotes social change Differential Association Edwin Sutherland We learn from the groups we associate with Family Friends, neighborhoods, subcultures What we learn Values, attitudes Techniques, behavior Control Theories Walter Reckless Inner controls Outer controls Travis Hirschi:
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inner controls socialized by Commitment Attachments Involvement Beliefs Labeling theory Labels become part of our self concept Rejecting labels: techniques of neutralization Denial of responsibility Denial of injury Denial of victim Condemn those giving label Appeal to higher loyalties Embracing labels: status in the subculture Strain Theory The American Dream dictates that we pursue the path to riches. The lack of legitimate opportunities increases the likelihood of turning to a life of crime. CRIME CRIME 1 THE VIOLATION OF FORMAL STATUTES ESTABLISHED BY LEGITIMATE GOVERNMENTS THIS IS THE LEGALISTIC APPROACH CRIME IS WHATEVER THE LAW SAYS IT IS AT ANY GIVEN TIME AND PLACE ALMOST ANYTHING CAN BE DEFINED AS CRIME AND THUS CRIMINAL UNDER THIS APPROACH CRIME 2 THE VIOLATION OF DIVINELY INSPIRED RULES THIS IS THE NATURALISTIC APPROACH ACTS IN OPPOSITION TO SUPPOSEDLY UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RIGHTS THE NUREMBURG TRIALS DURING WHICH TIME SEVERAL NAZI LEADERS WERE TRIED FOR WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY THREE FAMILIES OF CRIMINAL LAW
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COMMON LAW (PRECEDENT LAW) LAWS DEVELOP GRADUALLY OVER TIME THROUGH THE ACCUMULATION OF MANY CASES CIVIL LAW IS WRITTEN BY A RULING BODY AND IMPOSED UPON SOCIETY RELIGIOUS LAW SOURCE OF LAW IS BELIEVED TO BE DIVINE RATHER THAN CUSTOM OR HUMAN CRIME RATES MEASURING CRIME THE UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR) INDEX CRIMES FOUR PERSONAL HOMICIDE, FORCIBLE RAPE, ROBBERY, AND AGGRAVATED ASSAULT FOUR PROPERTY BURGLARY, LARCENY-THEFT, AUTO THEFT, AND ARSON RECENT DEVELOPMENTS MOST CRIMES REPORTED ARE PROPERTY CRIMES (89 PERCENT) ALL CRIMES WITHIN CATEGORIES HAVE DECLINED SINCE 1991 EXPLAINING THESE THINGS CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHICS CHANGES IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM TYPES OF CRIMES VIOLENT STREET CRIME HOMICIDE 20,000 AMERICANS ANNUALLY MOST TAKE PLACE BETWEEN PEOPLE WHO KNOW EACH OTHER MOST COMITTED BY WOMEN ARE DEFENSIVE ATTACKS AGAINST HUSBANDS
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VERY FEW ARE THE “PROFESSIONAL HIT MAN” TYPE OF HOLLYWOOD MOVIE MURDER FORCIBLE RAPE DATA IS SECOND LEAST RELIABLE SOME RESEARCHERS BELIEVE THAT THERE IS A “RAPE CULTURE” IN AMERICA RAPE IS A CRIME OF POWER; SEX IS THE MEANS TO ACCOMPLISH A SPECIFIC END OF DOMINATION
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