Arthur Goldhammer New York Columbia University Press 1998 377402 and Daniel J

Arthur goldhammer new york columbia university press

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Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 377–402; and Daniel J. Sherman, The Construction of Memory in Interwar France (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999) . 3. French losses (including dead, missing, and prisoners) between August 1914 and June 1916, before West African troops were deployed on the western front in large numbers, amounted to 62.26 percent of the eventual wartime total. See “Rapport Marin,” Journaux officiels de la République française. Documents parlementaires 2 (1920), annexe 633, 74. On the strategic implications of this situation, see Douglas Porch, “The Marne and After: A Reappraisal of French Strategy in the First World War,” Journal of Military History 53 (1989): 363–85. 4. See Charles Mangin, La force noire (Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1910). 5. On physical characterizations of Africans within the French scientific community, see, for instance, Bulletins et mémoires de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris (Paris: Librairie de l’Académie de Médecine, 1909–1910). On the origins of these pseudoscientific racist assumptions about Africans, see William B. Cohen, The French Encounter with Africans: White Response to Blacks, 1530–1880 (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1980) . On prewar French anthropology, see Jennifer Michael Hecht, The End of Soul: Scientific Modernity, Atheism, and Anthropology in France (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003); and Jean-Claude Wartelle, “La Société d’Anthropologie de Paris de 1859 à 1920,” Revue d’Histoire des Sciences Humaines 10 (2004): 125–71. On the postwar shift in French anthropology away from an emphasis on physical anthropology and the science of “race,” see Alice Conklin, In the Museum of Man: Ethnographic Liberalism in Paris, 1920–1950 (forthcoming). On the popular dissemination of these negative stereo- types during the quarter century before the First World War, see William H. Schneider, An Empire for the Masses: The French Popular Image of Africa, 1870–1900 (Westport, Conn., and London: Greenwood Press, 1982). On the contradictions between republican egalitarianism and French racial assumptions about non-European peoples during the colonial era, see Sue Peabody and Tyler Stovall, eds., The Color of Liberty: Histories of Race in France (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2006). 6. See Alphonse Séché, Les Noirs d’après des documents officiels (Paris: Payot, 1919); Lucie Cousturier, Des inconnus chez moi (Paris: La Suene, 1920); Leon Gaillet, Coulibaly: Les Sénégalais sur la terre de France (Paris: Jouve, 1917); Leon Gaillet, Deux ans avec les Sénégalais (Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1918); and Jérome and Jean Tharaud, Le randonnée de Samba Diouf (Paris: Plon, 1922). Biographical sketches of Gaillet, the Tharaud brothers,
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Remembering the Tirailleurs Sénégalais and the Great War 145 and Cousturier, who was an exceptionally compassionate and perceptive writer about the soldiers, are included in Brett A. Berliner, Ambivalent Desire: The Exotic Black Other in Jazz-Age France (Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002), 17–31.
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