What are basic emotions? What is the adaptive value of having universal basic
emotions and emotional expressions?
Describe the differences that researchers have found between men and women
when it comes to relationships and sex. How do evolutionary psychologists explain
these sex differences?
Why would individual differences exist, from an evolutionary perspective?
How could the Big 5 traits be seen as adaptive answers to evolutionary pressures?
Chapter 9: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Personality
Which psychologist is most prominently associated with psychoanalysis?
Describe the basic framework of psychoanalytic theory. Be sure to include the
Libido & thanatos
2 “basic instincts” (psychic energies, forces, motives)
1. libido: life instinct (sexual energy, self-preservation)
2. thanatos: death instinct (aggression, destruction, self-harm)
Freud: combining libido & thanatos = powerful
e.g. eating (life-sustaining, but also ripping, tearing, etc.)
more to the psych than just consciously accessible portion (iceberg analogy)
collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, feelings, & memories
- unconscious wields powerful influence (often in disguise)
(again): hydraulic theory of personality that attributes thoughts &
behaviors to unconscious motives & conflicts.
ACCESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS:
Freud found deeper meaning in almost everything
1. e.g. dreams (
“the royal road to the unconscious”)
manifest content: actual memorable dream content
- latent content: symbolic, deeper meaning of dream