Why have a need to belong reason 1 adaptive value

This preview shows page 7 - 10 out of 13 pages.

Why have a need to belong?
What are basic emotions? What is the adaptive value of having universal basic emotions and emotional expressions?
Describe the differences that researchers have found between men and women when it comes to relationships and sex. How do evolutionary psychologists explain these sex differences? Why would individual differences exist, from an evolutionary perspective? How could the Big 5 traits be seen as adaptive answers to evolutionary pressures? Chapter 9: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Personality Which psychologist is most prominently associated with psychoanalysis? Sigmund Freud Describe the basic framework of psychoanalytic theory. Be sure to include the following concepts: Libido & thanatos 2 “basic instincts” (psychic energies, forces, motives) 1. libido: life instinct (sexual energy, self-preservation) 2. thanatos: death instinct (aggression, destruction, self-harm) Freud: combining libido & thanatos = powerful e.g. eating (life-sustaining, but also ripping, tearing, etc.) the unconscious: —> more to the psych than just consciously accessible portion (iceberg analogy) - unconsciousness : collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, feelings, & memories (Freudian definition) - unconscious wields powerful influence (often in disguise) * psychoanalysis (again): hydraulic theory of personality that attributes thoughts & behaviors to unconscious motives & conflicts. ACCESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS: Freud found deeper meaning in almost everything 1. e.g. dreams ( “the royal road to the unconscious”) - manifest content: actual memorable dream content - latent content: symbolic, deeper meaning of dream
- safe to express unacceptable urges; consequence free 2. e.g. Freudian slips - slips of the tongue through which strange or unacceptable thoughts are (allegedly) expressed - “A Freudian slip is like saying one thing, but meaning your mother” 3. free association: relax, respond to stimulus with first thing that comes to mind 4. resistance: attempts to protect unconscious from outside access e.g. missing appointments, small talk, stuttering, etc. 5. transference: transferring feelings from close others to therapist - “reenactment” of unconscious conflict ACCESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS TODAY?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture