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Peoples community built around a concept of racial

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(people's community) built around a concept of racial purity. 2) Nationalism Most important are the glorification of the state and the total subordination of the individual to it. The state is defined as an organic whole into which individuals must be absorbed for their own and the state's benefit. This "total state” is absolute in its methods and unlimited by law in its control and direction of its citizens. Even though fascist movements try to bring about revolutionary change, they emphasize the revival of a mythical ethnic, racial, or national past. Fascists revise conventional history to create a vision of an idealized past (even if it didn’t really exist). These mythical histories claim that former national greatness has been destroyed by such developments as the mixing of races, the rise of powerful business groups, and a loss of a shared sense of the nation. 3) Idea of a Nation in Crisis A fascist movement almost always asserts that the nation faces a profound crisis. Sometimes fascists define the nation as the same as a nation-state (country and people with the same borders), but in other cases the nation is defined as a unique ethnic group 11
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Power, Authority, and Exchange – ISS 225 Ideology with members in many countries. In either case, the fascists present the national crisis as resolvable only through a radical political transformation. Fascists promise that with their help the national crisis will end and a new age will begin that restores the people to a sense of belonging, purpose, and greatness. The end result of the fascist revolution, they believe, will be the emergence of a new man and new woman. 4) Social Darwinism A ruling concept of fascism is the theory of social Darwinism. The doctrine of survival of the fittest and the necessity of struggle for life are applied by fascists to the life of a nation-state. Peaceful, complacent nations are seen as doomed to fall before more dynamic ones, making struggle and aggressive militarism a leading characteristic of the fascist state. 5) Elitism Another element of fascism is its elitism. Salvation from rule by the mob and the destruction of the existing social order can be affected only by an authoritarian leader who embodies the highest ideals of the nation. 2. Frequent Characteristics 1) Views on Race Though all fascist movements are nationalist, some fascist ideologies regard an existing set of national boundaries as an artificial constraint on an authentic people or ethnic group living within those boundaries. Nazism, for example, sought to extend the frontiers of the German state to include all major concentrations of ethnic Germans. This ethnic concept of Germany was closely linked to an obsession with restoring the biological purity of the race, known as the Aryan race, and the destruction of the allegedly degenerate minorities.
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