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the basis of a common or "pure race". All thesame race should be in one nation. Renan'scritique was that everyone was all a little mixedin France. Only 1 out of 10 frenchmen can tracetheir ancestry back to the FrancsMichelet on the French RevolutionThis is an example of historians skewing history.Michelet writes about the French Revolution 50years after attempting to express what therevolutionaries really wanted to achieve. In doingso he imposes his ideas on the nation.Revisionist historyAlso can be called "reverse ventriloquism," this isthe idea of historians changing history to fit theirneeds. They would put words in historial figures'mouths and force unification amongst the peoplein the past in order to further a sense ofanational identity.“Spiritual principle” of a nationThe part of Renan's speech where he "loosessteam." He argued that in order to truly define anation you must look for "spiritual bonds"between people. You must look into commonsuffering, as grief imposes duties and requirescommon effort.Rhetoric of shared sufferingA belief that there is a shared sense of grief orsuffering that bonds a nation. Renan said thatspiritual principle is found in shared suffering....one example of this is in GermanyNational identity as a “daily plebiscite”Renan's idea for the only way to legitimatelyhave a nation. You must poll citizens daily onwhat nation they want to belong to.Zionism and the Specter of NationalismThe Dreyfus Affair 1894Dreyfus was a JewJew was put to trial for treason /spying forGermany and was later found innocent. He wasactually the symbol or all Jews. From this trialled to anti-semitism taking on nationalistcharacteristics.FranceAntisemitism on the rise and Jews wereviewed as the bad guys. Led Thedor Herzl toconclude that Jews could never be fullyassimilated into European society, they needa state of their own somewhere else.12
Who?What?Where?When?Why? (Why is this significant?)Wilhelm Marr “Anti-Semitism”Marr lamented the assimilation and ascendencyof Jews in Europe and used certain rhetoric like“national suffering” in order to promote “anti-semitism” by inspiring the fear of Jews forGermans. He implied that Jews are notGermans. Recognizing the interest combinationof nationalism and religion, he expressed fearthat Germany was soon to be completelyoverrun by Jews, and that they would make itinto the "New Palestine."Houston ChamberlainHouston Chamberlain’s 1914 Racial Warning inEngland. He had a fear of racialmiscegenation of Jews in Christian communities.He made metaphors of the Jews penetratingEuropean society and also explained that Jewswere the only race to have kept their racial purityand feared the danger of “Pseudo-Hebraicmestizos”which were mixed Jewish andEuropean peoples. Chamberlain was rejected inEngland so he moved to Germany.